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Lesson 1-1 Introduction to Statistics You will learn to… * define statistics * define vocabulary associated with statistics

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The word statistics is derived from the Latin word status, meaning “state.”

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3 reasons for studying statistics: 1) to understand results of studies done 2) to be able to conduct our own research 3) to become better consumers and citizens

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Buying a car

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Medicine Source: Viagra.com

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Car insurance 18 year old male $842.30

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Car insurance 18 year old female $661.70

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Car insurance

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Stats in USC Colleges Required College of Arts and Sciences – Science Departments Moore School of Business College of Education – any BS and Early Childhood College of Engineering and Information Technology College of Pharmacy Arnold School of Public Health Optional College of Arts and Sciences – Arts Departments College of Education – any BA and Elementary School of Music

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Sample Schedule USC School of Business Third Semester ECON 221 Principles of Microeconomics MGSC 290 or Computers in Business or MGSC 291 Probability and Statistics MGMT 250/ENGL 463 or Professional Communication or ENGL Fiction, drama, poetry, or American or British literature ACCT 225 Introduction to Financial Accounting Liberal Arts Philosophy, history, political science, geography, foreign language, etc.

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USC Nursing: General Education Requirements General education course selections must meet University general education requirements. English: ENGL or higher Social Sciences: Two courses from one of these: sociology or psychology. One course must cover life-span content. Analytical Reasoning: To be satisfied in one of the following ways: 1) STAT 110 and MATH 122 or 2) STAT 110 and STAT 201

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USC: Hotel Recreation Tourism Management a.MATH 122 or 141, plus an additional course from PHIL 110 or 111, mathematics (at the next higher level), computer science (above CSCE 101), or statistics b. Two courses from one of the following fields-- Philosophy (110 and 111 only) or computer science (above CSCE 101) or statistics

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Majors of USC Students in one STAT 110 Nursing HRTM Early childhood Nursing French/Pub Rels Entertain. Mgt Crim Just Poli Sci & Cr J Early childhood Broadcast Jour Nursing HRTM Poli Sci Nursing Jour/Mass Comm Nursing psych/premed Business Nursing Broadcast Jour Public Relations Fashion Merch. HRTM Print Journalism Crim Just Early childhood Broadcast Jour Public Relations

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What is Statistics? Collect, Organize, Analyze, and Interpret Data in order to Make Decisions Statistics can be Hocus-Pocus!

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What is data? Data consists of information from observations, counts, measurements, or responses. examples: 5 ft, 98˚, 2 hrs, 165 lb, male, 50 years old, 4 fat grams, 200 times at bat, 100,000 sold

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Population The collection of all things being studied. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Sample A subset of the population.

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Heights of Ridge View students Heights of Ridge View students taking probability & statistics 1. Population? All RV students

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Heights of Ridge View students Heights of Ridge View students taking probability & statistics 2. Sample? RV prob & stats students

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PopulationSample Time & Money RV students RV seniors all coursesmath courses students in this class We get every measurement or count that is of interest. We may get only partial information, but that might be the most economical way to get info.

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Who was surveyed? university students How many were surveyed? 1746 Explain “At home: 82%.” 82% of those surveyed like to snack at home Why do the percents add up to more than 100%? multiple answers were allowed

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Who was surveyed? employed American adults Who did the surveying? US Labor Department Explain “Cashiers; 3,262,120; $5.75.” # of cashiers surveyed in 1996; median hourly pay rate

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The U.S. Department of Energy conducts a survey of 800 gasoline stations to determine the average price per gallon. 3. Identify the population. 4. Identify the sample. 5. What does the data set consist of ? all gas stations 800 gas stations price per gallon ($)

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A study of 33,043 infants in Italy was conducted to find a link between a heart rhythm abnormality and sudden infant death syndrome. 6. Identify the population. 7. Identify the sample. 8. What does the data set consist of ? all infants 33,043 infants heart rate in beats per minute

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A survey of 546 women found that more than 56% are the job of paying bills in their household. 9. Identify the population. 10. Identify the sample. 11. What does the data set consist of ? all women 546 women Yes or No – Are you the primary person in your household who pays the bills?

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Parameter: A numerical description of a population. Statistic: A numerical description of a sample. P * data from the population S * data from a sample

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Parameter 12. The average income of all people in the U.S. in The average income of people from three U.S. states in Is the fact a parameter or statistic? 14. A survey of a sample of workers reported their starting salary Statistic

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Is the fact a parameter or statistic? 15. Starting salaries for the 2005 graduates from USC 16. The number of students with Cingular cell phone service in a random check of classrooms Parameter Statistic

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Parameter: A numerical description of a population. Statistic: A numerical description of a sample. P * data from the population S * data from a sample Parameters are fixed in value, while statistics vary in value.

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Two Branches of Statistics 1) Descriptive Statistics 2) Inferential Statistics * report the facts discovered in the survey * use sample data to make conclusions about an entire population * estimation, prediction, probability

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POPULATION of women N = 130,000,000 Whole Population Available Find the average height of women Collect Data Describe Population Descriptive Statistics

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POPULATION of women N = 130,000,000 SAMPLE of women n = 1000 Inferential Statistics Whole Population NOT Available Find the average height of women Collect Data Use sample to estimate description of population Take Sample

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U.S. teens were surveyed. 72% of the girls and 58% of the boys had after school jobs. 72% of the girls and 58% of the boys had after school jobs. We predict that a higher percentage of teen girls have after school jobs. Descriptive statistics: Inferential statistics:

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18. In a recent survey of 1000 adults, 47% said using a cell phone while driving should be illegal. 47% of 1000 U.S. adults believed that using a cell phone while driving should be illegal. Based on a recent survey, about half of the population believe that using a cell phone while driving should be illegal. Descriptive statistics: Inferential statistics:

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It’s Time to Practice! Assignment 1.1

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Lesson 1-2 Types of Data You will learn to… * classify data * identify types of measurements

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Qualitative data Examples: Data that cannot be measured or counted gender, favorite class, religious preference, eye color, hair color, geographical location, zip code characteristic or categorical

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Quantitative data Examples: age, heights, weights, temperatures, grades, time, money Data that can be measured or counted numerical data

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Qualitative or Quantitative data? 1. ID numbers of the students in this class 2. temperature each day this week 3. jersey numbers of the players on a team 4. vehicle models qualitative 5. price of vehicles quantitative

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Nominal Data > list of categories, names, labels, or qualities Examples: type of car you drive, your jersey number, college you want to attend, eye color, hair color, gender, zip code > order (rank) cannot be assigned to the categories

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Ordinal Data > data that is ordered or ranked Examples: race outcomes ( 1 st,2 nd,3 rd ), grade (A,B,C,D), top 5 sports teams, rating (good, better, best)

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Decide whether the data is nominal or ordinal. Why? 1. highest level of education 2. marital status 3. zip code nominal 4. rating for first impression of store ordinal

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Discrete Data > countable Examples: number of courses you are taking, number of pairs of shoes you own, number of CDs you own, score at figure-skating competition cost of concert tickets > usually integers only – no decimals or fractions 9.9, 9.5, 8.8, 10.0, 9.3

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Continuous Data > not countable Examples: weight of a bookbag, minutes it takes for you to get to school, inches of rain fall > weight or measurement time is continuous

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Decide whether the data is continuous or discrete. Why? 1. students wearing blue jeans 2. height of students 3. money each student has discrete 4. weight of each bag of M&Ms continuous

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variable qualitative quantitative nominal ordinal discrete continuous

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Lesson 1-3 Statistical Design You will learn to… * identify ways to collect data * identify ways to get a sample of the population for a study

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The goal of every study is to collect data and use it to make a decision. If the data collection process is flawed, then the results are not valid.

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Designing a Statistical Study 2) develop a plan for collecting data 1) identify data of interest & identify population 3) collect data 5) report inferential statistics 4) report descriptive statistics 6) identify any possible errors

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Data Collection 1) Take a Census 2) Use a Sampling (entire population) 3) Create a Simulation (part of a population) 4) Conduct an Experiment (reproduce conditions - crash dummies) (study group & control group)

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Which method of data collection? 1. the effect of changing flight patterns on the number of airplane accidents 2. the effect of aspirin on preventing heart attacks simulation experiment 3. the weights of all linemen in the National Football League census 4. U.S. residents’ approval rating of the president sample

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Experiment Everyone in class will look at a picture. Without saying anything, you will write down what you see in the picture. If you are sitting in seat 1-13, close your eyes, cover your eyes, or put your head down.

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Do not say anything. Do not write anything. Just look at the picture.

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Without saying anything, write down what you see in the picture.

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Watch this video. In this video, 3 kids have white shirts and 3 kids have black shirts. Focus on the kids in white and count the number of times they pass the ball to a different person.

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When time and money prevent you from collecting data from the entire population…

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Data Collection 1) Take a Census 2) Use a Sampling (entire population) 3) Create a Simulation (part of a population) 4) Conduct an Experiment (reproduce conditions - crash dummies) (study group & control group)

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5 Sampling Techniques (ways to choose a sample)

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Random Sample: > Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. (heights of students)

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Using the Calculator >MATH > PRB > rand I nt( rand I nt (begin, end, # in sample) rand I nt (1, # in population, # in sample) How can we all get the same data? 1 rand

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Stratified Sampling > divide the population into groups using some characteristic > select a few members from each group

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Low Income Middle Income High Income X X X X XX

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Stratified Sampling A Hall B HallC Hall D Hall FreshmenSophomores Juniors Seniors

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Proportional Stratified Sampling Low Income Middle Income High Income 2,000 families 500 families 500 families select 50 select 200 select 50

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Cluster Sampling > population is divided into groups > use one group for the sample

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Cluster Sampling Low Income Middle Income High Income

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Cluster Sampling FreshmenSophomores Juniors Seniors

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Systematic Sampling > every n th number from the population is included in the sample

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Systematic Sampling XXX XXX Choose every household 3 rd

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Systematic Sampling Choose every 5 th student

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Convenience Sampling > subjects used because they are convenient and available >volunteer sampling * telephone survey * survey at a shopping center

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Identify the sampling technique used for each study. 5. select a class at random and question each student in the class 6. divide the students by grade level and question some students in each grade level cluster stratified

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7. assign each student a number, generate random numbers, and question each student whose number is selected Identify the sampling technique used for each study. random 8. choose a starting point and question every 25 th student systematic

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The commonly used sampling methods that often results in biased samples are _______________________ Volunteer sampling Convenience sampling

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The Statistical Process: 1) identify _________ 2) plan __________ 3) collect & analyze ______ 4) describe ______ 5) make inferences about __________ 6) Identify possible ________ population investigation data sample population errors

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It’s Practice Time! Assignment 1.3

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Ch 1 Review Assignment

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