14Tone Author or speaker’s viewpoint of a subject An author uses denotation & connotation to develop tone in writing.Denotation: Literal meaning of a wordConnotation: Associated meaning of a word (often positive or negative)
15Connotation: Positive or Negative? Self-confident / conceitedStubborn / firmHard-working / workaholicCasual / sloppyUsed car / pre-owned carWarm crackling of a fire / scalding smoke of a fire
16CharacterizationMethods used to reveal the personality of a character
17Types of CharactersStatic character: does not undergo any important change from the beginning to the end of the storyDynamic character: undergoes a change in attitude, circumstance, or values
18Methods of Characterization Direct characterization – makes direct statements about character’s personalityIndirect characterization – reveals a character’s personality though:Character’s wordsCharacter’s actionsWhat other characters think about characterWhat other characters say about character
19“The Most Dangerous Game” “The Cask of Amontillado” Theme 2: Suspense!“The Most Dangerous Game”“The Cask of Amontillado”
20FoilLiterally, a “leaf” of bright metal placed under a jewel to increase its brillianceFoil:A character whose personality or attitude is opposite that of another characterThrough this contrast one character highlights the characteristics of the other character
21SymbolSomething that on the surface is its literal self but which also has another meaning or even several meanings.For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice.A symbol may be said to embody an idea.
22Universal SymbolsEmbody universally recognizable meanings wherever usedEx: light to symbolize knowledge, a skull to symbolize death, etc.,
23Constructed SymbolsAre given symbolic meaning by the way an author uses them in a literary work,
27Symbolism in “Red Death” The color redThe ebony clockThe mysterious guest
28Mood The emotional quality or atmosphere of a story Can suggest a specific emotion or quality of settingCreated by descriptive language, figures of speech, word choice
29Mood How would you describe the mood of “The Cask of Amontillado” How does Poe create this mood?
30ForeshadowingAuthor’s use of clues to prepare readers for events that will happen later in the story
31ForeshadowingWhen did Poe use foreshadowing in the story?
32SuspenseA feeling of curiosity, uncertainty, or even dread about what is going to happen next.Writes increase suspense by giving readers clues as to what might happen.
33SuspenseHow does Poe create suspense in his story?
34“The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” “Gaston” Theme 3: Imagination“The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”“Gaston”
35Figurative LanguageUsed to convey something other than the literal meaning of their wordsEnriches our experience while reading
36Hyperbole“If I had a nickel for every time I told you that, I’d be a millionaire.”“Here once the embattled farmers stoodAnd fired the shot heard round the world.”– Ralph Waldo Emerson
37Similes and Metaphors Compare two unlike objects Comparison implies a shared quality
38Simile Compares two unlike things using “like” or “as” Examples: His face was as red as a tomato.Compared items:Shared quality:The sprinter was like a racecar.
39Metaphor Compares two unlike things without using “like” or as” Examples:The thief was a tiger, ready to pounce.Compared items:Shared quality:The giant’s footsteps were thunder as he walked.
40PersonificationGiving nonhuman or inanimate objects the qualities associated with humans or living creatures.Examples:The clock frowned at me as I dashed out the door.Human or living quality:The puppies played and giggled with one another.
41ImageryLanguage that specifically appeals to one or more of the five sense.SightSoundSmellTasteTouch
42Onomatopoeia Word that imitates or suggests the sound it describes BuzzAchooPocketa-pocketa