Tone Author or speaker’s viewpoint of a subject An author uses denotation & connotation to develop tone in writing. – Denotation: Literal meaning of a word – Connotation: Associated meaning of a word (often positive or negative)
Connotation: Positive or Negative? Self-confident / conceited Stubborn / firm Hard-working / workaholic Casual / sloppy Used car / pre-owned car Warm crackling of a fire / scalding smoke of a fire
Characterization Methods used to reveal the personality of a character
Types of Characters Static character: does not undergo any important change from the beginning to the end of the story Dynamic character: undergoes a change in attitude, circumstance, or values
Methods of Characterization Direct characterization – makes direct statements about character’s personality Indirect characterization – reveals a character’s personality though: – Character’s words – Character’s actions – What other characters think about character – What other characters say about character
Theme 2: Suspense! “The Most Dangerous Game” “The Cask of Amontillado”
Foil Literally, a “leaf” of bright metal placed under a jewel to increase its brilliance Foil: – A character whose personality or attitude is opposite that of another character – Through this contrast one character highlights the characteristics of the other character
Symbol Something that on the surface is its literal self but which also has another meaning or even several meanings. For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice. A symbol may be said to embody an idea.
Universal Symbols Embody universally recognizable meanings wherever used Ex: light to symbolize knowledge, a skull to symbolize death, etc.,
Constructed Symbols Are given symbolic meaning by the way an author uses them in a literary work,
Symbolism in “Red Death” The color red The ebony clock The mysterious guest
Mood The emotional quality or atmosphere of a story – Can suggest a specific emotion or quality of setting – Created by descriptive language, figures of speech, word choice
Mood How would you describe the mood of “The Cask of Amontillado” How does Poe create this mood?
Foreshadowing Author’s use of clues to prepare readers for events that will happen later in the story
Foreshadowing When did Poe use foreshadowing in the story?
Suspense A feeling of curiosity, uncertainty, or even dread about what is going to happen next. Writes increase suspense by giving readers clues as to what might happen.
Suspense How does Poe create suspense in his story?
Theme 3: Imagination “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” “Gaston”
Figurative Language Used to convey something other than the literal meaning of their words Enriches our experience while reading
Hyperbole “If I had a nickel for every time I told you that, I’d be a millionaire.” “Here once the embattled farmers stood And fired the shot heard round the world.” –Ralph Waldo Emerson
Similes and Metaphors Compare two unlike objects Comparison implies a shared quality
Simile Compares two unlike things using “like” or “as” Examples: – His face was as red as a tomato. Compared items: Shared quality: – The sprinter was like a racecar. Compared items: Shared quality:
Metaphor Compares two unlike things without using “like” or as” Examples: – The thief was a tiger, ready to pounce. Compared items: Shared quality: – The giant’s footsteps were thunder as he walked. Compared items: Shared quality:
Personification Giving nonhuman or inanimate objects the qualities associated with humans or living creatures. Examples: – The clock frowned at me as I dashed out the door. Human or living quality: – The puppies played and giggled with one another. Human or living quality:
Imagery Language that specifically appeals to one or more of the five sense. – Sight – Sound – Smell – Taste – Touch
Onomatopoeia Word that imitates or suggests the sound it describes – Buzz – Achoo – Pocketa-pocketa