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Chapter 18: The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18: The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18: The French Revolution and Napoleon

2  Section 1: On the Eve of Revolution  In 1789 France was experiencing a horrible financial recession  Wages were being cut, while food prices soared  The poorest citizens of Paris had enough and took action  French Society Divided  During this time, France had a strict class system:  -First Estate = Clergy  -Second Estate = Nobility  -Third Estate = bulk of population  The clergy enjoyed great wealth and led lavish lifestyles

3  Despite this, the First Estate did perform social services  The Nobles of the Second Estate held top government jobs  Many nobles felt the effects of the bad economy however  They hated absolutism and the possibility of losing special privileges  The Third Estate was made up of several different classes:  -Bourgeoisie (middle class)  -rural peasants  -urban workers

4  Urban workers were the poorest and faced unemployment and crime  Members of the Third Estate resented privileges of those above them  The First and Second Estates paid almost no taxes at the expense of the peasants  The Enlightenment led people to question social inequalities  The Third Estate started to demand financial equality  Financial Troubles  Economic problems in France were made worse due to deficit spending  Vocab pg 572

5  By the 1780’s huge debt and crop failures made the situation worse resulting in tax increases  Jacques Necker was a financial advisor to the king:  -reduce extravagant spending  -reform government  -abolish tariffs  He was dismissed after he suggested the First and Second Estates pay taxes  Louis XVI Calls the Estates-General  Estates-General consisted of legislative body from all three estates

6  The King had all Estates prepare a list of grievances called cahiers  These cahiers reflected class resentments  Delegates from the Third Estate insisted on reform, including the system for voting  Eventually the Third Estate named themselves the National Assembly  They took the Tennis Court Oath, vowing not to disband until a just constitution was passed  Some reform minded clergy and nobles joined the Assembly  The King sent in troops to attempt to dismiss the National Assembly

7  Parisians Storm the Bastille  With the assembly surrounded, Parisians took action  More than 800 stormed the Bastille searching for weapons  They killed the leader of the Bastille but found no weapons  The Bastille became a symbol of the independence of the French people however  July 14 th is known as Bastille Day  Pg

8  Section 2: The French Revolution Unfolds  Revolution can be broke into several phases:  -National Assembly ( )  -Radical Phase ( )  -Directory ( )  -Age of Napoleon ( )  Political Crisis Leads to Revolt  Revolt was fueled by two things:  -political crisis  -famine  80% of income was spent on food  Things were made worse by rumors of the government seizing food

9  The National Assembly Acts  Nobles in the National Assembly voted to end their special privileges  Later the Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen  This was modeled after the Declaration of Independence  The Declaration upheld the slogan of the revolution, “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”  Many women were imprisoned or executed for protesting the omission of women in the declaration  The Declaration was also ignored by many upper class who still lived in luxury

10  The National Assembly Presses Onward  To help pay off debt, the National Assembly voted to take over and sell Church lands  The Catholic Church was placed under complete state control  Many clergy and Catholic peasants rejected this  In 1791 The Assembly finished work on the Constitution of 1791  The Constitution had many democratic ideas, but power was still in the hands of the wealthy

11  Radicals Take Over  Many European rulers denounced the revolution  European nations started to strengthen borders to keep out the “French Plague”  When Prussia and Austria vowed to defend the French Monarchy, the Revolution moved into the Radical Phase  The Legislative Assembly lasted less than one year  Working class men and women pushed the revolution into the Radical Phase  They demanded a new Republican form of government

12  The Legislative Assembly was torn apart between revolutionaries and moderates  Revolutionaries took control of the Assembly and declared war on various European countries  This war lasted for 23 years  Vocab pg 578, 3-5 pg 583

13  Section 3: Radical Days of the Revolution  There was much violence between loyalists and revolutionaries  Radicals eventually gained control of the Assembly and demanded suffrage for all males  They set up the French Republic and drew up a new constitution  King Louis was tried as a traitor and executed  Terror and Danger Grip France  France was in constant danger from foreign countries, and counter- revolutionaries

14  To deal with violence, the Committee for Public Safety was established  Young French recruits were inspired by the revolution and were eager to fight  The French army was young, but became very powerful  To deal with counter-revolutionaries, the Committee launched a reign of terror  Under Maxmillian Robespierre, the guillotine became the symbol of the revolution  17,000 people were beheaded during the reign of terror  Eventually Robespierre was also executed

15  The Revolution Enters Its Third Stage  After the Reign of Terror, moderates created a new constitution  It set up a 5 man Directory and a 2 house legislature  The Directory was weak and supporters of a constitutional monarchy won a majority in the legislature  Revolution Brings Change  Most important change in France was a feeling of Nationalism  Social reform and religious toleration were also outcomes of the revolution  Vocab 585, 3-6 pg 590

16  Section 4: The Age of Napoleon  Napoleon Rises to Power  As a young soldier, Napoleon favored Republican rule  He was ambitious, and won many battles  He eventually became involved in politics  He overthrew the Directory and named himself Consul for life, then Emperor  Napoleon reforms France  His slogan became order, security and efficiency  He also restored economic prosperity

17  All levels of society backed Napoleon  His Napoleonic Code was accepted by fair by all classes, but still excluded women  Napoleon Builds an Empire  Through military power, he began to annex conquered lands  He controlled most of Europe by placing friends on the thrones of conquered states  His invasions helped spread revolutionary ideas across Europe and inspired nationalism in France  Napoleons Empire Faces Challenges  Napoleons first mistake occurred in 1812

18  Nationalism in other countries started to work against him  Conquered countries started to revolt against him  Napoleon attempted to invade Russia  Out of 600,000 soldiers, 20,000 returned home  This defeat hurt his reputation at home  Napoleon Falls from Power  After new alliances formed against him, Napoleon abdicated  Louis XVIII took the throne of France

19  Napoleon escaped from exile and returned to France to seize power again  He reassembled the army under his command  The French Army was crushed at the Battle of Waterloo  After this battle European leaders met at the Congress of Vienna to restore order and stability  They achieved a goal of European peace for the next 100 years  Vocab pg 592, 3-5 pg 600  End of notes!

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