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STUDENT SUCCESS MODEL Assessment Based Interventions Impacting Psycho-Social Variables International Assessment and Retention Conference Scottsdale, Arizona.

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Presentation on theme: "STUDENT SUCCESS MODEL Assessment Based Interventions Impacting Psycho-Social Variables International Assessment and Retention Conference Scottsdale, Arizona."— Presentation transcript:

1 STUDENT SUCCESS MODEL Assessment Based Interventions Impacting Psycho-Social Variables International Assessment and Retention Conference Scottsdale, Arizona June 13, 2008 Fred B. Newton & Eunhee Kim Kansas State University

2 Decision Process Personal History Emotional /Personal Concerns Health Behaviors Study Behaviors OUTCOME Student Success PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS IMPACTING STUDENT SUCCESS OUTCOMES THE SPECTRUM OF INFLUENCE VARIABLES

3 Three Step Model Assessment - Intervention - Outcome (1) Identification: Use of three inventories to comprehensively assess student needs (2) Implication: Providing interpretation and interactive consultation (3) Improvement: Implementing change strategies and measuring outcomes

4 PRACTICE TO IMPACT POSITIVE CHANGE  What? Assessment – Accurate and meaningful measurement of individual attitudes, behaviors and personal/emotional impact  So What? Integration – Understanding and making personalized and meaningful connection to the individual within the system context  Now What? Application – Appropriate intervention to create new learning strategies, better habits, problem-solution, and self-confidence

5 MEASUREMENT TO OUTCOME Implication (Goal Activity) Improvement (Outcome) CLEIK-PIRSHBA Baseline Readiness Standard Identification (Assessment)

6 STEP 1: I D E N T I F I C A T I O N Use of three inventories to comprehensively assess student needsCLEIK-PIRSHBA Baseline Readiness Standard Identification (Assessment)

7 The Assessment Instruments  CLEI (College Learning Effectiveness Inventory)  HBA (Health Behavior Assessment)  K-PIRS (K-State Personal Identification Scales) * KCAT is the non-profit intellectual properties corporation of Kansas State University

8 C L E I (College Learning Effectiveness Inventory) The CLEI is an inventory of six scales with 50 questions representing a continuum of individual behaviors, attitudes, and dispositions related to academic activity. The CLEI was developed over the past 10 years starting from over 300 generated items following theoretical assumptions on factors that impact college student learning (Russell & Petrie, 1992 – Handbook of Counseling Psychology, NY: Wiley).

9 The purpose of the CLEI is to organize the self-reported student responses into thematic domains or categories that have been shown to contribute to academic success…  To provide immediate feedback to the student completing the inventory by showing a pattern of strengths and weakness on an individualized profile  To provide information for advising and counseling a student, making it a tool for discussion of goals, selection of interventions, referral to relevant student services, and a measurement of progress and involvement in the change process C L E I (College Learning Effectiveness Inventory)

10 CLEI Six Scales (1)Academic Self-Efficacy (ASE Scale): Expressing confidence in academic ability, awareness of effort toward study, and expectation for success in college attainment. (2)Organization and Attention to Study (OAS Scale): The organization of tasks and structuring of time to set goals, plan, and carry out necessary academic activity. (3)Stress and Time Press (STP Scale): Dealing with pressures of time, environmental concerns, and the academic demands that impact academic study. (4)Involvement with College Activity (ICA Scale): Belonging to organizations and participating in activities, including formal or informal gatherings of friends and classmates, within the campus environment. (5)Emotional Satisfaction (ES Scale): Degree of interest and emotional response to academic life including people and the campus educational environment. (6)Class Communication (CC Scale): Both verbal and non-verbal effort to engage in class activity.

11 C L E I Profile T-Scores are based on the mean scores from a normative sample of college undergraduates (N=879)

12 H B A (Health Behaviors Assessment)  The HBA is a self-reporting instrument that measures health behaviors in the areas of physical activity, eating behavior, and personal management skill.  The HBA also includes a readiness measure that indicates student awareness and readiness to make personal improvements.  Upon completion of the inventory, the student receives immediate feedback on the individual profile via the Internet.

13 Example of Assessment

14 Assessing Baseline Health Behaviors of College Freshmen Using the HBA  70%Meeting physical activity standard  40%Meeting fruit & vegetable standard  32% BMI = overweight or obese  6%Females underweight  19%High consumption alcohol  41% Deficient sleep  32% Feel stress impact

15 K - P I R S (K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales) K-PIRS is an instrument that identifies college-student client concerns at the beginning of treatment and, when used with K-PIRS Form-B, assesses behavior change over time.  50-item Client Concern Inventory  Presenting Symptoms on 7-Clinical Scales  Level of Interference with Academic and Social Function  12 items Life Perspective Scales (Personal and Social)  Readiness to Change  Follow-up Measure of Change

16 K- P I R S Profile 7-Clinical Scales MD:Mood Difficulties LP:Learning Problems FC:Food Concerns IC:Interpersonal Conflict S-HI:Self-Harm Indicators S/AI:Substance/ Addiction Issues AI: Academic Interference SI: Social Interference

17 K - P I R S Research & Development  Clinical norms developed on college student-clients using samples from counseling centers of nine institutions (N=4,703)  Data includes student readiness for change and also level of interference to academic and social functioning.  Follow up research demonstrates level of change that occurs from intake to session 3 and session 6.  Special forms of the K-PIRS are being adapted to serve as a general measure of student personal/emotional concerns.

18 L P I (Life Perspective Inventory) Developed to gain information concerning student’s life perspective and personal resilience. Factor 1: Personal Effectiveness includes outlook, problem solving, overall health, emotional stability, and personal meaning. Factor 2: Social Support includes personal and family interactions, available resources, and opportunities. * Presently, used as an experimental inventory until validity and normative studies completed.

19 STEP 2: I M P L I C A T I O N Implication (Goal Activity) Providing interpretation and interactive consultation Designed for self, peer mentor, and professional consultations

20 N O W W H A T? Interventions That Follow Assessment  Follow-up Measurement of Student Health Behaviors  Advisor Assessment of Student Learning Behaviors

21 The purpose of the PAC-CATS grant program is to provide an intervention for first-year K-State students that raises awareness and promotes healthy lifestyle behaviors in the areas of physical activity, eating behavior, and personal management skill. Helping students to develop these lifestyle behaviors can help reduce future risk of overweight and obesity. PAC-CATS Program Example Intervention Program

22  Baseline Behaviors  Readiness for Change  Educational Intervention  Intensive Change Intervention  Outcomes How Fit are KSU Freshmen Students?

23 Objectives for Freshman  Gain Awareness of Health Behaviors  Have Knowledge of Health Guidelines  Become Motivated to Change  Set Personal Goals  Learn Processes to Self Regulate

24 Elements of PAC-CATS Program 1.Health Behaviors Assessment Individual assessment and personalized feedback on: Physical Activity Eating Behavior Personal Management Skill Pre & Post-Tests: Participants take the assessment at the beginning and at the end of the program

25 2.Behavior Change Process  Establish goals for increasing healthy behaviors, based on health assessment feedback: I want to jog or use the aerobics machines at the Rec Center 3 times a week for 30 minutes a session.  Establish action steps to reach goals: Block off 1 hour for exercise on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays of each week in weekly planner. Arrange to meet a friend at the Rec every Monday at a certain time.  Design system to monitor behaviors and progress toward goals - which includes designing ways to reinforce your progress. Elements of PAC-CATS Program

26 3. Peer Mentors  Participants have their own personal mentor who are students with knowledge in the areas of physical activity, nutrition, and personal management skill.  Mentors help students set goals, design action steps, and monitor progress, and provide motivation.  Mentors provide support (Students Helping Students) Elements of PAC-CATS Program

27 MENTORING Helping Students, Help Themselves

28 4.Program Resources  The PAC-CATS Website contains information, self-help tips and links to helpful resources in the areas of physical activity, nutrition, and personal management skill. It is a valuable tool for developing the knowledge and skills that help students be successful in their personal programs.  Healthy Behaviors Workbook provides a systematic process for the student to move from assessment, organize a plan, and monitor and adapt based upon results. Elements of PAC-CATS Program

29 HBA Profile Variables Positive Change from Pre to Post Group Difference Peer Mentored (N=128) Education Only (N=132) Physical Activities General Physical Activity** Stretching/Flexibility** Strength Training** Eating Behaviors Fruits & Vegetables** * Whole Grains*** Low-fat or Fat-free Dairy** High-fat Foods*** Caffeinated Beverages** Regular Pop/Soda** Sweetened Beverages** Alcoholic Beverages* * Personal Management Skill Time Management Relaxation Techniques*** * Positive Thinking** Creative Problem Solving** Stress Impact** Sleep Health Behavior Changes: Year 2005 & 2006 * p <.05, ** p <.01

30 What did we learn about K-State students?  Weight and health issues were present with a significant number of students.  Awareness building using methods of assessment & education were steps that increased readiness for change.  Involvement in programs of change & support produced significantly positive changes in health behaviors: 15 of 17 areas for two cohort freshmen (Fall 05, Fall 06)  Participant reports indicated that learning to self-regulate (set goals and carry through) increased confidence and transferred to other behaviors applied to many areas of their life.

31 Example Applied to Student Advising  Advisor meets through individual appointment with student (or group seminar)  Assigns a set of Assessments to provide data on student individualized learning process (CLEI, HBA, K-PIRS)  Conducts a developmental interview (some structured process to review key points in student learning history  Synthesizes with the student strengths and weaknesses of approach to learning  Facilitates suggestions for improvement or change with student input

32 Observations Concordia College Academic Counselors “My students really seem to like it. They seem to talk more when we have the CLEI in front of us.” “This (the CLEI) is a great tool to use with non-verbal clients.” “I feel like our interventions are more on target and the student’s take more ownership in their academic success plans.” “The CLEI is easy to implement and the online scoring is great.” “Use of the CLEI by counselors increased student engagements.”

33 C L E I Example Profile “A” Female, Sophomore, Majoring Business/Marketing GPA 3.25 on a 4.0 Scale

34 Dx Hypotheses Brainstorming Possible Explanations from a CLEI Profile 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

35 Possible Interventions Ideas for Intervention Strategies to be used based on the Dx 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

36 C L E I Example Profile “B” Male, Sophomore, Major Undecided GPA below 1.9 on a 4.0 Scale

37 Dx Hypotheses Brainstorming Possible Explanations from a CLEI Profile 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

38 Possible Interventions Ideas for Intervention Strategies to be used based on the Dx 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

39 CLEI Online Follow-up Examples of possible strategies will be included with the profile in the future.  Keep track of your goals  Prepare an academic calendar  Join an activity club  Establish behavior change goals  Practice self reflection  Set up an appointment with your academic adviser  Set up an appointment with your institutions counseling Services office

40 STEP 3: I M P R O V E M E N T Implementing changes strategies and measuring outcomes Improvement (Outcome)

41 OUTCOME EVALUATION  Psycho-social Variables  Student Success Outcome Variables  Relationship of Psycho-social Variables to Success Outcomes Decision Process Personal History Emotional /Personal Concerns Health Behaviors Study BehaviorsOUTCOME Student Success

42 Relationship of Study Behavior with GPA Higher GPA significantly associated with higher scores in the six-CLEI scales (N=592). a b c a b c a b c a b c a a b

43 Relationship of Emotional/Personal Concerns with Academic & Social Functioning N=872 **, Correlation Coefficients are significant with p<.01

44 Relationship of Health Behavior with Student Success Outcome Alcohol Consumption G P A Unhealthy Eating Personal Management Skill Healthy Eating Vigorous Exercise -.175 -. Moderate Physical Activity Life Satisfaction BMI.497 -.136 Regression coefficients of health behavior variables for each predictors (GPA, Life Satisfaction, BMI); Significant at alpha=.05; N=347..115 -.216

45 Demographical Factors Impacting Psycho-social Variables  Gender  Year in College  Ethnicity  Fraternity/ Sorority Affiliation  Housing Type  Other Factors

46 Demographical Factor in Health Behaviors - Gender -  Female students are doing better with eating behaviors, specifically in the areas of foods to use in moderation or sparingly (caffeinated, sweetened, alcoholic beverages, and regular pop/soda).  Male students do more physical activities, specifically in strength training.  Male students have less stress impacts, and use relaxation techniques more frequently.

47  Lower BMI  Greater fruits & vegetables consumption  Greater physical activity (stretching/flexibility, strength training)  Greater alcoholic beverages consumption Demographical Factor in Health Behaviors - Fraternity/Sorority members -

48 Demographical Factor in Study Behaviors - Lower Class vs. Upper Class - Lower class students had significantly lower scores in Academic Self-Efficacy, Involvement with College Activity, and Class Communication of the six-CLEI Scales **

49 Demographical Factor in Emotional/Personal Concerns - Majority vs. Minority - ** Minority clients: Higher levels in Mood Difficulties, Learning Problems, Interpersonal Conflicts, Career Uncertainties, Self-harm Indicators, & Academic interference **

50 D I S C U S S I O N Future Research Utilizing a complete battery of the three K-CAT inventories to measure a broad picture of college students’ health behavior, mental health, learning attitudes and behaviors providing a comprehensive view of psycho-social variables that may impact their overall functioning in college. Additional Tools  Life Perspective Inventory  Career Deciding  Stress & Resilience Inventory  Problem Identification – Students in General

51 MEASUREMENT TO OUTCOME CLEIK-PIRSHBA Implication (Goal Activity) Improvement (Outcome) Baseline Readiness Standard Identification (Assessment)

52 End of Slide Show

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