Accident Cost To the Person - To the Family - To the Organizer – To the University.
Accidents Can Be Avoided Dislocated shoulder Knee injury (fell from table) Dehydration
Some of our past incidents “He jumped onto a canvas sheet and dislocated his left shoulder” (2 cases) => Outpatient (NUH) Unapproved activity – Blindfolded and asked to slide down slippery slope. Crashed against mattress. => Sprained ankle. Rendered first aid and sent to polyclinic (X-ray taken) Mr AAA had mildly dislocated his arm during the pool games but did not report it and carried on with the games before suffering a more severe dislocation shortly after. => Outpatient treatment
Some of our past incidents During game where participants were supposed to hop and bite off mini doughnuts hung on pull-up bar, participant overestimated height of bar, jumped too high and hit against bar. => Cut on eyelid. Outpatient (Sent to SGH for check and was recommended for stitches.) A group leader of an orientation camp sustain burns to her arm and thigh areas during field cooking. The incident occurs when a freshmen of her group attempted to open a gas canister next to a open flame. The leakage of gas resulted in a quick fire that was unfortunately directed at the injured. => Outpatient treatment
Some of our past incidents During field games, one of her toes was stung by a hornet. => Patient was treated immediately and diagnosed fine. Accident contact with grass. Rashes on both hands and legs. => Outpatient While playing pool games he felt something amiss on his left shoulder, but he dismissed it, thinking that it was probably some strain/sore from the game. It was only during the next game, when he got into the pool then he realise he has dislocated his shoulder (first time dislocate) => Sent to NUH, SAO and parents informed immediately. Outpatient.
Some of our past incidents Tripped and fell during Treasure Hunt activity. Collar bone fractured and was sent to SGH. => Need to undergo surgery? Freshmen used hand to block a water bomb and injured his finger. => Finger fractured and undergo minor surgery. Need to be assisted during lab and test lessons. Started nose-bleeding after the day’s activities were over. => Doctor suspected could be due to heat. Advised to drink more water. Outpatient.
When Thing Goes Wrong... ‘He also alleges the medical response was inadequate and the school failed to properly assess whether the firm was capable of supervising the trek …’ ‘It is understood the trip down the muddy terrain took more than two hours.’
Duty of Care Event organiser owes the duty of care to the participants Need to show reasonable care NTU Participants (Parents) Yourself (Organising Committee) Duty of Care
Understanding Risk Activity Equipment Environment (weather, place) People
Understanding Risk Activity Hazards involved Duration Location Method Day / Night Equipment Special training needed Relevant codes may apply Ease of use Functional checks PPE Environment Weather (heat stress, lightning) Indoor / Outdoor Outdoor (terrain, stings/bites) People People vs Tasks Physical limitations (size, strength, rest, allergy, etc) Mental preparedness (phobia) Participants’ acceptance
三 思 为 妙 Think Thrice BEFORE You Act The Take-5 Concept 1 2 3 4 5 Stop and Look Think through the Task Identify Hazards Control + Communicate Do the Task Safely
Take-5 Considering the activity and the steps Where will the activity be held? What can happen? Hazards? Who can get hurt? How bad can the injury be? What can be the potential causes? What can I do to reduce the risk? High Risk Medium Risk Low Risk
The 3x3 Risk Matrix Likelihood of Occurrence Severity of Risk Frequent 3Occasional 2Seldom 1 Critical 3 High (No) 9High (No) 6Moderate 3 Marginal 2 High (Maybe) 6 Moderate 4Low 2 Negligible 1 Moderate 3Low 2Low 1 Detailed guide on using the 3x3 Risk Assessment is available on SAO website
Planning & Considerations Site survey before event Conduct dry run for the games Manpower (controllers, traffic marshals, safety officer) Logistics (drinking water, PPE) Impact analysis (to participants and others) Establish rules
Emergency Planning Emergency contact list and numbers Nearest hospital, medical centre (time to reach?) Mode of Transportation (offshore, terrain, etc) First Aiders First aid boxes, stretcher, AED
Communicating the Control Measures Communicate the control measures to your participants and event controllers Check provisions are in place Assess participants’ condition Monitor and enforce during event
Post Event Evaluation Any unanticipated event and the impact caused Feedback from participants Better and safer planning for next event Share experiences