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How to Use Theory TO SUPPORT IDEAS TO EXPLAIN SOMETHING COMPLICATED TO UNDERSTAND SOMETHING CONFUSING TO CLARIFY SOMETHING UNCLEAR.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Use Theory TO SUPPORT IDEAS TO EXPLAIN SOMETHING COMPLICATED TO UNDERSTAND SOMETHING CONFUSING TO CLARIFY SOMETHING UNCLEAR."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Use Theory TO SUPPORT IDEAS TO EXPLAIN SOMETHING COMPLICATED TO UNDERSTAND SOMETHING CONFUSING TO CLARIFY SOMETHING UNCLEAR

2 THE MEANING OF THEORY NEXT

3 What is theory? A theory is a set of ideas that helps to explain why something happens or happened in a particular way, and to predict likely outcomes in the future. Cottrell, via www.scribd.com/doc/35884843/Theories-of-Social-Work-SR‎

4 What is theory? Theories are based on evidence and reasoning, but have not yet been conclusively proved. Cottrell, via www.scribd.com/doc/35884843/Theories-of-Social-Work-SR‎

5 What is theory? An attempt to explain… a framework for understanding… a set of ideas linked together to help us make sense of a particular issue. Thompson, N. via www.mcgraw-hill.co.uk/openup/chapters/0335204252.pdf‎

6 SOME TYPES OF THEORY NEXT

7 Explanatory Theory Provable explanations why something happens

8 Model A description of activity in a structured form

9 Perspective Ways of conceptualizing, visualizing, understanding, or seeing something

10 Principle A proven explanation why something happens. A principle is applicable in any situation, with some exceptions. (Ethical principle)

11 Law A proven explanation why something happens. A law is applicable in any situation, with no exceptions. (Law of gravity)

12 Some types of theories Explanatory Theory: Provable explanations why something happens Model: Organized description of activity in a structured form Perspective: Ways of conceptualizing the world or a particular subject

13 How can we use theories? Observation: Theory can help a student to understand a new, unfamiliar, or strange idea or situation. Description: Theory can provide a generally understood and shared language in which these observations can be organized and recorded. Explanation: Theory can suggest how different observations might be linked in a way that explains the observations. Prediction: Theory can indicate what might happen in the future. Intervention: Theory can provide ideas about what might bring about a change in a situation.

14 IMPORTANCE OF THEORY NEXT

15 Theory is important because Theory provides a way of understanding something complicated or difficult

16 Theory is important because Theory provides a way of understanding something unexpected or unsure

17 Theory is important because Theory can ensure accountability

18 Theory is important because Theory can help avoid discrimination

19 Theory is important because Theory is the mark of a professional

20 Theory is important because Theory is the mark of a professional Theory can ensure accountability Theory can help avoid discrimination Theory provides a way of understanding something complicated or difficult Theory provides a way of understanding something unexpected or unsure

21 WHY STUDY THEORY? NEXT

22 To Help in Careful Observation Theory can tell students what to see, what to look out for

23 To Help in Careful Description conceptual vocabulary Theory can provide students a conceptual vocabulary to arrange and organize their observations

24 To Help in Careful Description framework Theory can provide students a framework to arrange and organize their observations

25 To Help in Careful Explanation (1) Theory can suggest how different observations might be linked and connected

26 To Help in Careful Explanation (2) Theory can offer possible causal relationships between one event and another

27 To Help in Careful Prediction Theory can indicate what might happen next

28 To Help in Careful Intervention Theory can suggest things to do to bring about change

29 Why should we study theory? 1.Observation: Theory can tell students what to see, what to look out for 2.Description: Theory can provide a conceptual vocabulary and framework to arrange and organize their observations 3.Explanation: Theory can suggest how different observations might be linked and connected; theory can offer possible causal relationships between one event and another 4.Prediction: Theory can indicate what might happen next 5.Intervention: Theory can suggest things to do to bring about change

30 x Theory Ageneralstatementabouttherealworldwhoseessentialtruthcanbesupportedbyevidenceobtainedthro ughthescientificmethod.– Mustexplaininaprovablewaywhysomethinghappens.Ex:Learningtheoryexplainsbehavioronthebasiso fwhatorganismshavelearnedfromtheenvironment. Model Isablueprintforaction.Itdescribeswhathappensinpracticeinageneralway.Ex:Thebehavioralmodel(bas edonlearningtheory)givesspecificguidelinestoforhowtoeffectchange.Ifaparentcomplainsthathischild ishavingdifficultystayinginhisownbedatnightandtheparenthasbeenallowingthechildtosleepinhis/her bed(therebyreinforcingthechild‟sdifficulty)thepractitionerwouldhelptheparenttoextinguishthebeha viorbyremovingthereinforcement. Perspective Awayofperceivingtheworldflowsfromavalueposition.Note:Theperspectivewillinfluencechoiceoftheo ryandmodel.Note:Payne(1997)arguesthatsocialworktheorysucceedsbestwhenitcontainsallthreeele mentsofperspective,theoryandmodel. Example:Menwhobattertheirpartners Theory:Sociallearningtheory– menlearntheirviolentbehaviorintheirfamilyoforigin,andfromaculturethatrewardsangerandviolencei nmen;cognitivetheory– whatmensaytothemselvesinsituationsofstressincreasestheirangerandtheirpropensitytobeviolent.M odel:Cognitive-behavioralPerspective:Feminist

31 Limitations of Theories Recognisethat no single theory can explain everything: When a person engages in an action (or inaction) the reason for their behaviourcan be rooted in a range of causes or motives. Related to the first point, recognisethat some theoretical approaches just don't work with some people. Applying Brief Solution Focused Therapy can be really effective with some people. For other people, it leaves them cold. Always apply the value base to theory -much of the theory used in social care practice and social work is drawn from outside of the profession. Theory may have its roots in education, psychology or management. As such, it may not incorporate social work values and you should take responsibility for applying these Never be intimidated by theory. You use it every day.

32 Why do students need to use theory? Using all kinds of theory in studies has important advantages for students Theories can help students to understand of a situation. Using theory, students can generate ideas about what is going on, why things are as they are etc. For example the information in a boo, a report, or an assessment can seem like a jumble of information - applying theory can help "make sense" of the information. Using theory can help to justify actions and explain statements can lead to your words and writings becoming more widely accountable and ultimately more respected. In interacting with people, the use of theories that relate to specific situations can give students more direction in their work. Using theory can help explain why an action resulted in a particular consequence. This can help students review and possibly change what they do so as to create more effective consequences. This is why theory is important in studies, for work, and for social interaction so that a student can be be more valued in society.

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36 Introduction to the Values Theory 1.Values are beliefs. But they are beliefs tied inextricably to emotion, not objective, cold ideas. 2.Values are a motivational construct. They refer to the desirable goals people strive to attain. 3.Values transcend specific actions and situations. They are abstract goals. The abstract nature of values distinguishes them from concepts like norms and attitudes, which usually refer to specific actions, objects, or situations. 4.Values guide the selection or evaluation of actions, policies, people, and events. That is, values serve as standards or criteria. 5.Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form an ordered system of value priorities that characterize them as individuals. This hierarchical feature of values also distinguishes them from norms and attitudes.

37 Values Theory (Schwartz, 1992) 1.Self-Direction. Independent thought and action; choosing, creating, exploring. 2.Stimulation. Excitement, novelty, and challenge in life. 3.Hedonism. Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself. 4.Achievement. Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards. 5.Power. Social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources. 6.Security. Safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self. 7.Conformity. Restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms. 8.Tradition. Respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide the self. 9.Benevolence. Preserving and enhancing the welfare of those with whom one is in frequent personal contact (the ‘in-group’). 10.Universalism. Understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people and for nature.

38 Sources of Value Priorities 1.Life Circumstances: Background Variables 2.Age: Cohorts 3.Physical ageing: Strength, energy, cognitive speed, memory, and sharpness of the senses 4.Age: Life stages 5.Gender 6.Education

39 List of Theories Social-Cultural Theory - Lev Vygotsky, Thomas Scheff Behavioral Theory - B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov Cognitive Theory – AlfredAdler, Jean Piaget Crisis Theory - Kathleen Ell; B. Gilliland & R. James; L.G. & H. J. Parad Ecological System Theory – Urie Bronfenbrenner Empowerment Theory - E. Cox & L. Gutierrez; J. Lee; E. Canada; P. Chatterjee & S. P. Robbins Humanistic (Existential/Transpersonal) Theory: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Carl Jung Object Relations Theory - Margaret Mahlen, Otto Kernberg Psychodynamic Theory - Sigmund Freud, Eric Erickson – Psychosocial theory of human development Systems Theory PsychodynamicT heory Social Learning Theory Conflict Theory Hull’s Drive Theory

40 HOW TO USE THEORY IN A RESEARCH PAPER NEXT

41 First Mention A theory can be used several times in a piece of writing. theory nametheorist year published The first time it is used, mention the theory name, theorist, and year published. Vary the signal phrases you use to integrate quotations.

42 Examples The following signal phrases use quotations. Your task is to replace the quotations with theories.

43 IN THE WORDS OF In the words of In the words of author and essayist Samuel Johnson, “The true measure of a man is how he treats someone who can do him absolutely no good."

44 NOTE has noted As Divakaruni has noted, “Looking down from the heights of Maslow's pyramid, it seems inconceivable to us that someone could actually prefer bread to freedom.”

45 POINT OUT points out Arthur Hardy, a renowned expert on New Orleans Carnival traditions, points out that “Mardi Gras came to North America from Paris, where it had been celebrated since the Middle Ages.”

46 CLAIM claims Racial profiling “makes a mockery of the rights to which people in this country are entitled,” claims columnist Colbert I. King.

47 OFFER offers Sir Winston Churchill offers this wise advice: "If you are going through hell, keep going."

48 CONCEDE by conceding Sheffield answers her critics by conceding, “The proposal did not account sufficiently for the economic downturn.”

49 WHERE IN THE SENTENCE? HOW TO USE

50 At the Start Sir Winston Churchill offers this wise advice Sir Winston Churchill offers this wise advice: "If you are going through hell, keep going."

51 In The Middle writes Barry Goldwater “We have a crime problem in this country,” writes Barry Goldwater, “not a gun problem.”

52 At the End asserts the late Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater. “We have a crime problem in this country, not a gun problem,” asserts the late Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater.

53 At the End asserts the late Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater. “We have a crime problem in this country, not a gun problem,” asserts the late Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater.

54 Signal Phrases Signal phrases can be used to introduce a theory Signal Phrases.pdf www.plattsburgh.edu/files/2/files/Signal%20Ph rases.pdf‎ Signal Phrases.pdf Signal Phrases department.monm.edu/english/mew/signal_ph rases.htm‎ Signal Phrases Signal Phrases www.apsu.edu/sites/apsu.edu/files/academic... /Signal_Phrases.pdf‎ Signal Phrases

55 SIGNAL VERBS NEXT

56 Use the Simple Present Tense acknowledges comments describes maintains reports adds compares

57 Use the Simple Present Tense disputes notes responds admits concedes emphasizes observes

58 Use the Simple Present Tense shows agrees confirms endorses points out states argues contends illustrates reasons suggests asserts declares implies refutes summarizes claims denies insists rejects writes

59 Use the Correct Word contends illustrates reasons suggests asserts declares

60 Use the Correct Word implies refutes summarizes claims denies insists rejects writes

61 Simple Present Tense Correct Word acknowledges comments describes maintains reports adds compares disputes notes responds admits concedes emphasizes observes shows agrees confirms endorses points out states argues contends illustrates reasons suggests asserts declares implies refutes summarizes claims denies insists rejects writes

62 A REMINDER ABOUT GRAMMAR

63 He writes Do not use signal phrase such as “he writes” to introduce a quotation that is not a complete sentence Incorrect: Brown writes, “My childhood, which was happy and carefree, but passed by too fast.” Correct: Brown writes, “My childhood... was happy and carefree, but passed by too fast.” Correct : Brown describes her childhood as “happy and carefree,” but she laments that it “passed by too fast.”

64 A REMINDER ABOUT PUNCTUATION

65 Two Punctuations Quotations may be introduced by two- -and only two--marks of punctuation, the comma and the colon. Never introduce a quotation with a semicolon.

66 A REMINDER ABOUT SOURCE CITATION

67 Always Cite It Whenever you use a quotation in your paper, you should cite it using the citation style specified by your professor, such as the APA style

68 EXAMPLES NEXT

69 Explain the Theory (with Content) Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation or needs (1943) describes six levels of human needs from basic (physiological) to advanced (self-actualization) levels. Hoppe, M. H., (2007) Culture and Leader Effectiveness: The GLOBE Study. Online at http://www.inspireimagineinnovate.com/PDF/GLOBEsummary-by-Michael-H-Hoppe.pdf

70 Explain the Theory: Content Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation or needs (1943) describes six levels of human needs from basic (physiological) to advanced (self-actualization) levels. Hoppe, M. H., (2007) Culture and Leader Effectiveness: The GLOBE Study. Online at http://www.inspireimagineinnovate.com/PDF/GLOBEsummary-by-Michael-H-Hoppe.pdf CONTENT SUMMARY AUTHOR THEORY YEAR DOES WHAT CONTENT

71 Explain a Theory (with Usefulness) Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation or needs (1943) describes six levels of human needs from basic (physiological) to advanced (self-actualization) levels. Hoppe, M. H., (2007) Culture and Leader Effectiveness: The GLOBE Study. Online at http://www.inspireimagineinnovate.com/PDF/GLOBEsummary-by-Michael-H-Hoppe.pdf

72 Explain the Theory: Usefulness The Globe theory of cultural dimensions and culture clusters (1980) suggest nine categories of cultural values and cultural practices, which can be used to help us understand leadership styles in various cultures. Hoppe, M. H., (2007) Culture and Leader Effectiveness: The GLOBE Study. Online at http://www.inspireimagineinnovate.com/PDF/GLOBEsummary-by-Michael-H-Hoppe.pdf USEFULNESS AUTHOR YEAR THEORY DOES WHAT CONTENT

73 How to Introduce a Theory

74 Start with a Story with a Need / Problem Image courtesy of ashleystravel.com.

75 Show the Need Image courtesy of (questgarden.com) NEED TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S BEHAVIOR

76 Show a Need Image courtesy of (www.2dayblog.com) NEED TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S CULTURE

77 Show a Need Image courtesy of (www.1000ventures.com) NEED TO UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER’S LANGUAGE

78 SHOW THE THEORY Image courtesy of www.york.ac.uk. USE THE SIMPLEST POSSIBLE IMAGE

79 Show the Theory Image courtesy of insideology.com. IF IT CAN BE SIMPLIFIED, SIMPLIFY THE PRESENTATION

80 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of insideology.com.

81 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of insideology.com.

82 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of insideology.com.

83 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of insideology.com.

84 Simplify a Complicated Idea

85 Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)

86 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)

87 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)

88 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)

89 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)

90 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)

91 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)

92 Simplify a Complicated Idea Image courtesy of (www.grovewell.com)

93 Apply the Theory: Solve the Need Image courtesy of (questgarden.com) CONTINUE THE STORY UNTIL THE NEED IS MET OR PROBLEM IS SOLVED

94 Apply the Theory: Solve the Need Image courtesy of (www.2dayblog.com) CONTINUE THE STORY UNTIL THE NEED IS MET OR PROBLEM IS SOLVED

95 Apply the Theory: Solve the Need Image courtesy of (www.1000ventures.com) CONTINUE THE STORY UNTIL THE NEED IS MET OR PROBLEM IS SOLVED

96 End with the Story Image courtesy of ashleystravel.com. END THE STORY

97 Team Work: 10 Minutes Theory: Gagne / Bloom – Signal Words – Theory summary: content or usefulness Story – Situation – Need or Problem – Solution End Story

98 Keywords 1.Cultural Adjustment Curve 2.Benjamin Bloom Theory 3.Robert Gagne Theory 4.Vygotsky Theory 5.Alvin Toffler Theory 6.Carl Rodgers - Phenomenological theory 7.Pavlov

99 Behavior Theory: 8 Human Biases Endowment Effect: tendency to place more value on expected losses than expected gains (also known as Risk Aversion) Status Quo Bias: tendency to stick with current state of affairs even though we can see clearly better alternatives Framing Bias: tendency to draw conclusions according to the way something seems as opposed to reality Availability Bias: tendency to rely on easily available information rather than seeking out harder to obtain but more accurate/relevant info Confirmation Bias: tendency to prioritise evidence which accords with our pre- existing beliefs Choice Overload: where we have so many options we don't make any decision Overconfidence: tendency to rate ourselves more knowledgeable and skilful than we actually are Money Illusion: tendency to judge prices and interest rates at nominal rates rather than taking into account inflation Thompson, K. (2012), Behavioural Economics can predict irrational human behaviour online at http://www.bioteams.com/2012/12/31/behavioural_economics_can.html#more

100 Sigmund Freud Id Ego Superego Libido Aggression Projection Denial Displacement Neurosis Thompson, K. (2012), Behavioural Economics can predict irrational human behaviour online at http://www.bioteams.com/2012/12/31/behavioural_economics_can.html#more

101 List of Theories Bandura’s Social Cognitive Learning Theory (1986) Becker’s Health Belief Model (1974) Azjen and Fishbein’s Theory of Reasoned Action (1975) Prochaska and DiClemente (1986) – Behavior Change Theory Prochaska et al (1992) – Behavior change in a supportive environment Owen and Lee (1984) – Five stages of behavior change Thompson, K. (2012), Behavioural Economics can predict irrational human behaviour online at http://www.bioteams.com/2012/12/31/behavioural_economics_can.html#more

102 List of Theories Learning theory (Dollard & Miller) 1949 Evolutionary theory (Bowlby) 1953 Kohlberg’s stages of moral development Theory of moral reasoning (Gilligan) Eriksson’s Stages of psychosocial development Thompson, K. (2012), Behavioural Economics can predict irrational human behaviour online at http://www.bioteams.com/2012/12/31/behavioural_economics_can.html#more

103 Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Stages of Development Thompson, K. (2012), Behavioural Economics can predict irrational human behaviour online at http://www.bioteams.com/2012/12/31/behavioural_economics_can.html#more


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