2Spanish Conquest and Rule The Spanish conquest of Mexico, launched from Cuba, resulted in the creation of a new, hybrid culture.Expeditions into Mexico were led by adventurers known as conquistadors – Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, Juan de Grijalva, and Hernan Cortes who landed in 1519.Cortez captured the Aztec emperor Montezuma II by posing as the god Quetzalcoatl and use of Indian mercenaries.Hernan Cortes
3Cortez named his conquest New Spain. Spanish ConquestCortez named his conquest New Spain.Pedro de Alvarado conquered the regions of Guatemala and El Salvador, which together then constituted much of Central America.Pedro de Alvarado
4The Rise of New SpainThe Spanish crown rapidly sought to consolidate its new empire and slowly curbed Cortes’s personal power.To keep the Indians from revolting King Charles I of Spain allowed them to speak their own languages and be governed by their own officials. However, they had to pay a special tax called a tribute and work for the Spaniards when help was needed. They were also required to convert to Catholicism.
5Spanish RuleAlong with harsh labor conditions and the forced resettlement of many indigenous communities, European diseases caused a great decline in the native population. When the Spaniards arrived, there may have been from million indigenous people living in Mexico. Between 1519 and 1600, the indigenous population dropped to approximately 1 million.
61540s – Silver mines brought wealth to the creoles and peninsulares. Spanish RuleThe arrival of Europeans and later, Africans in Mexico led to the emergence of a new, racially mixed society. The whites included peninsulares (people born in Spain) and creoles (Europeans born in America).Creoles and mestizos considered themselves superior to the indigenous people.1540s – Silver mines brought wealth to the creoles and peninsulares.Silver Mine
7Spanish RuleFew Spanish officials lived in New Spain and could not enforce the laws.1700s – King Charles III tried to reorganize the colonial government, giving more power to Spanish-born individuals and less to the creoles. He also raised taxes.Few creoles sought independence, but many wanted more control of their affairs.King Charles III
8Revolt against the Spaniards 1807 – French forces occupied Spain and imprisoned King Ferdinand VII.Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a priest, plotted with indigenous people and mestizos to seize Mexico’s colonial government.1814 – King Ferdinand VII returns to the Spanish throne and tries to help Spain recover from the Napoleonic Wars by taxing the creoles.1821 – A peaceful encounter between opposing armies declared Mexican independence.Miguel Hidalgo y CostillaKing Ferdinand VII
9Difficulties of the early republic 1847 – U.S. General Zachary Taylor fought Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, who served as Mexico’s president 11 times between for control of Texas.Both sides claimed victory. Taylor became a national hero in the U.S. and was elected president the next year.Zachary TaylorSanta Anna
10Difficulties of the early republic 1848 – Mexico ceded the land that is now California, Nevada, and Utah; most of Arizona; and parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming. Mexico also recognized Texas, south to the Rio Grande, as part of the U.S. Mexico received $15 million from the U.S.1853 – Gadsden Purchase, the U.S. paid Mexico $10 million for land in what is now southern Arizona and New Mexico.
11The Mexican War exhausted Mexico’s economy. ReformThe Mexican War exhausted Mexico’s economy.1855 Laws were passed that eliminated privileges of the Roman Catholic Church1857 A new constitution brought back the federal system of government.1862 – The French seized lands during the U.S. Civil War but was pressured by the U.S. to remove its troops in 1866.
12The dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz 1876 Porfirio Diaz overthrew Benito Juarez as dictator.The economy improved under Diaz. He attracted foreign investment to connect Mexico with the rest of the world, particularly the U.S. Investors’ money helped build railroads, develop mines and oil wells, and expand manufacturing.The government kept wages low and crushed attempts to form labor unions. Indigenous communities lost land to big landowners. A great majority of Mexicans remained poor and uneducated.Economic improvements primarily benefited big landowners, business owners, and foreign investors.Porfirio Diaz
131913 – General Victoriano Huerta seized control and Madero was killed. Revolution of 19101911 – Francisco Madero forced Diaz from office. He could not handle the many groups that opposed him.1913 – General Victoriano Huerta seized control and Madero was killed.Powerful military leaders including Mexico’s Pancho Villa and U.S. President Woodrow Wilson helped Venustiano Carranza to seize control.1915 – There is a power struggle and Villa is upset with the U.S. and raids New Mexico.Pancho Villa
14Revolution of 19101916 – President Wilson sent General John J. Pershing into Mexico, but Pershing’s troops failed to capture Villa1938 – During an oil workers’ strike, the government took over the properties of U.S. and British oil companies in Mexico. The companies and the British protested. The U.S. government recognized Mexico’s right to the properties as long as the companies received fair payment. In the 1940s, Mexico agreed to pay the companies for their lost property.President WilsonGeneral PershingPancho Villa
15During and after World War II WWII ( ) Mexico entered the war on the side of the Allies in Mexico’s economy grew rapidly. The value of Mexican exports had doubled when the war ended inThe economy continued to improve after the war and expanded through the 1960s. Generous government assistance and expanded highway, irrigation, and railroad systems. Agricultural exports to the U.S. increased.
16The late 1900’s1970s-1980s many people involved in antigovernment movements disappeared and were presumably killed.Worldwide problems of recession and inflation led to a decrease in economic production and sharp price increases during the 1970s.President Luis Alvarez strained relations with the U.S. by siding with Cuba and Chile. Illegal immigration of Mexicans into the U.S., plus drug smuggling from Mexico caused more problems between the two countries.President Luis Alvarez
17The late 1900s1976 – Jose Portillo is president and reduced government controls over businesses to encourage private investment. Mexico became a major oil exporter and relations with the U.S. improved.Despite oil wealth, many people remained poor. High rate of population growth contributed to overcrowding and millions emigrated.1981 – Decreased demand for oil and Mexico could not pay its foreign debt and the value of the peso plummeted. Unemployment and prices rose sharply.Jose Portillo
18North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 1993 – Mexico, Canada, and the U.S. ratified NAFTA. The treaty, provided for the gradual elimination of trade barriers among Mexico, the United States, and Canada.Need to Know / After NAFTA / PBS
192013 – 100 deaths after Tropical Storm Manuel and Hurricane Ingrid Recent Developments2008 – The criminal justice system is reformed – presumption of innocence, until proven guilty, of people charged with crimes.2000s – Violence among the Mexican drug cartels (associations of suppliers) resulted in tens of thousands of people dying.2013 – 100 deaths after Tropical Storm Manuel and Hurricane Ingrid2014 – State controlled petroleum industry is opened to private investment.The most dangerous drug cartels on Earth
20Recent Developments 43 teaching students were "delivered" by the Iguala city police to a drug trafficking group, who murdered them under the belief that they were sent by a rival gang.To use a cliche, it was the straw that broke the camel's back, a strong indication that Mexico's people are no longer willing to tolerate the current state of affairs. Some have suggested that the government will fall, and others have said Mexico is a failed state.Can Justice Prevail after murder of students?