2Importance of Interviews it-1-1 Interviews are the chief source of information in any investigation involving people as primary charactersDone correctly, interviews can produce a large amount of information that will aid in the direction and pace of the investigationDone poorly, interviews can be a major problem to focus and success of the case.
3Interviewer Attributes it-1-2-A/E Honesty, Integrity and ObjectivityAble to establish and maintain RapportAble to effectively, intently listenAble to maintain self control in all casesAble to get the information out
4Human Relations Skills it-1-3-A/G Unbiased ConductCalm and ReasonableApproachableShow RespectDemonstrate Care and InterestSelf-ConfidentEnhance Your Agency’s Reputation
5Speech it-2-4-A/C Second to appearance, speech will be your signature Speech and demeanor sets the tone for an interviewDo not use speech as a way to impress
6Body Language it-3-5-A/C Words- intended to convey desired messageNon-verbal behavior- not as easily controlled and may signal need for closer examinationPosture changesExcessive or unusual gesturingEye and Body MovementFacial expressions and change in color/toneBreathingBe alert for conflict between the Verbal Message and the Non-Verbal behavior in a response- pay attention to the question that triggered the response
7Body Language it-4-5-D/G Personal Space- a demonstrationEye ContactPhysical PositioningTelephone-not always a bad thing because the subject can’t assess your non-verbal communication
8Interpersonal Skills it-5-6-A/B If possible, use the subject’s nameWhen appropriate, try to make the subject feel important and that they are held in some esteem.
9Appearance, Bearing and Personal Habits it-5-7-A/B Office and VehicleDress to enhance confidence and authorityBe courteousDo not consider yourself above the lawBearingWalkPostureMannerismsVoiceLanguageGrammar
10Appearance, Bearing and Personal Habits it-6-7-C Gum chewingSmokingNicknamesPut your feet up on the deskBite your fingernailsPlacing your hand over your mouth
11Definitions it-6-8-A/B Interrogation- Interview-the questioning of an individual believed to possess information or knowledge of interest to the investigatorInterrogation-the questioning of an individual believed to possess information or knowledge of interest to the investigator who is reluctant to make a full disclosure of information
12Before Conducting an Interview it-7-9-A Initial Considerations:When planning an interview/interrogation use what works for you and discard what does not work for youBackground InformationTime and LocationAre You the Right Person to do the Interview?Dynamics of the InterviewSeparate Interview Subjects
13Preparing for the Interview People edit information when telling a story because they have already decided what is important to the interviewer.Discuss the importance of including everything and make the person aware of the natural tendency to edit.Periodically check & remind the person and encourage a complete disclosure.Initial Considerations BEFORE the interview: when to do the interview, privacy, environment, room setting, who is going to do the interview, preparation of the interviewer
14When Should I Conduct the Interview? Sooner is better in most cases however certain issues can have an effect:Availability of the Subject & InterviewerLegal ManeuveringInformation Collecting EffortsPreparation of the InterviewerSecuring the proper place for the interview
15Where Should I Conduct the Interview? The place for the interview should be evaluated on the following criteria:MAJOR issues-privacyconfidentiality / safetylevels of human and mechanical noisecomfortableinvestigator safety
16Where Should I Conduct the Interview? Try to Minimize Distractions:Avoid pictures, posters, plaques, ornamentswalls and ceiling should be painted in a neutral color with no distinctive pattern or designno pencils, clips, papers etc within reach of subjectIf possible do not allow access to purses, back packs during the interview.no pagers or telephones in the roomno access to room by anyone during the interview
17Where Should I conduct the Interview? Select an area with proper lighting:Room light should illuminate the subject’s face well but not be glaring.The interviewer must be able to see the subject’s face at all times.The interviewer’s face should be clearly visible to the subject at all times.
18Where Should I conduct the Interview? Chair Placement:The interviewer and subject should be 4-5 feet apart, facing each other, without anything directly between them.Chairs should be standard office type with straight backs, without rocking or swivel mechanisms and no wheels.Chair heights should be identical.If an interpreter is used they should be next to the interviewer and at an angle to the subject.
19Are you the right person to do the Interview? Just because it is your case does not always mean you should do the interview:avoid ownership and turf issuesThe right person has:a solid understanding of interview dynamics and human naturepatience (lots of it)experience and is well trained in doing interviewsexpertise in the legal parameters for their agency
20Are you legally, mentally & emotionally prepared for the Interview? Do you have authority to conduct this interview?Is any kind of legal or constitutional warning to the subject required by policy or law?Is there a particular right or privilege to which the subject is entitled by way of labor or employment agreements?Have you reviewed the file and do you know it in detail?Are you prepared to deal with any unpleasant or offensive conduct or information in the interview?
21Establishment of Rapport it-8-9-C CRITICAL SKILL!!Set the mood or tone for the interviewEstablish friendly communications and relationshipTo assist in establishing rapport- create a calm and harmonious relationship
22The Dynamics of the Interview Avoid creating the impression of seeking an admission.Don’t make a “production” out of note taking.Consider how you are attired- less formal attire is sometimes useful in reducing barriers.Avoid “charging” words like illegal, violation, steal, lie etc.Be aware of the subject’s personal space.Stay seated, don’t pace.
23The Dynamics of the Interview No smoking, chewing or drinkingTreat the subject with decency ALWAYSIf you catch the subject in a lie don’t make a big point of it but note it for later use.NO WEAPONSConsider how you would respond in the environment you’ve created for the subject.Find a good point about your subject and use it.
24Notes and Tape Recordings it-9-9-F Take accurate notes sufficient enough to aid your memory at a future point in timeAre your notes discoverable? Ask legal counsel.List in notes others present during the interviewNote date, time, location, beginning and ending time of interviewUse of Tape Recorder- 1 or 2 party state, can be inhibiting and interfere with interview- be capable of doing an interview without a “net” notes or recordings
25Separate WitnessesSeparate interview subjects immediately and always try to do interviews separately.Full disclosure very seldom occurs in the public arena. Also, private interviews:reduce confusionprotect the integrity of an eyewitness accountthe possibility of a rehearsed statement or joint alibis
26Introduction and Identification it-8-9-B Identify yourself and reason for interview, begin to establish rapport by presenting your credentials or IDIdentify subjectObtain relevant personal information, i.e., Full name and nickname, Address, Date of birth, Social security number, Employment, Occupation, Telephone numbers (resident and business)Make it clear that you only seek the truth
27Establish RapportTry to create a calm, harmonious, empathetic relationshipYou will set the mood of the contact during the first few minutes of the interview. If it isn’t possible to seem “friendly” then at least appear considerate and professional.Shake hands?- be aware, this simple act can go very wrong- very fast. If it doesn’t seem appropriate or your “6th sense” is saying no DON’T DO IT.Establish normal, friendly communicationsAttempt to calm the subject- take the time and make a real effort. It will pay off in the end.
28General Questioning Technique it-8-9-D Interrogatory / Free Narrative “letting them tell their story”Followed by:Direct Examination (General to Specific) asking clarifying questions seeking detail and additional information
29Questioning Tips it-9-9-E Key suggestions:Yes / No Questions: avoid them- they are leading and interrupt the flow of the exchangeUse simple clear questionsAsk questions one at a time and allow the subject to answerLISTEN TO ALL RESPONSESUSE SILENCE!
30Questioning Tips it-9-9-E Use simple non-leading questions to prompt the subject to continue their statement: What happened? When did it happen? Where did it happen? How did it happen? Who was involved?NOT Did it happen at 3:00PM? Was Bill involved? These questions are suggestive and not appropriate for the free/narrative portion of the interviewAVOID COMPOUND EXTENDED QUESTIONS"Why" and "Why not" are good questions that cause an answer to be justified.Listen carefully for vague, misleading, and inconsistent answers
31Questioning Tips it-9-9-E Follow free/ narrative with direct examination to obtain new information or to fill in omitted detailsBegin with questions not likely to cause the subject to become hostile. Try to re-establish rapport any time this happensAsk questions that will develop the facts in the order of occurrenceGive the subject ample time to answer. The more difficult the question, the longer you should wait
32Questioning Tips it-9-9-E During the Direct Examination portion of the interview it is permissible to ask narrow, specific questions to eliminate hearsay, inferences, and lies – rephrase responses for feedbackAsk how the subject actually came to know something? Sensory based: Did you hear it? Did you see it?, Did you smell it? Source based: Did you actually see it or did someone tell you about it? -good method to get subject to commit to what is personal knowledge vs. “collective” knowledgeEvaluate the reliability of the witness: reputation for truthfulness, recall, personal interests, mental status, etc.
33Interview Psychology 101- Subject Interviews Often the stressors cause the subject to engage in behaviors meant to disassociate themselves with the violationExample: Not coming to work or avoiding certain locations or people in order to “wait it out”.
34Interview Psychology 101- Subject Interviews On an internal level the subject knows when they are in some manner responsible for the violation- this causes stress and verbal & non-verbal indicators become apparentRemember that many of the same stressors found during the in-person interview are also present during the telephone interview
35Interview Psychology 101- Subject Interviews The subject knows there will be an investigation and they will likely be sought out at some pointDuring this time the subject will experience greater levels of anticipationUnexpected noises or disruptions, unscheduled visits etc. become alarming and the subject may demonstrate levels of hyper- sensitivityThe subject may begin to exhibit defensive reactions to non-threatening or neutral situations
36Interview Psychology 101- Subject Interviews When interviewing a “person of interest” unexpected telephone interviews can be very effectiveIt precludes the subject from preparing a responseThe stressors will be fresh and cause the desired reactions; a truthful statement or obvious errors that show the falseness of the subject’s response
37Interview Psychology 101- Subject Interviews Telling the truth requires no preparation, context or planning -a false statement requires all of these componentsConsequently lying is not often done well on the spur of the moment as in an unexpected telephone call or contact
38Interview Psychology 101- Subject Interviews Some investigators avoid telephone interviews- they want the advantage of seeing the subject’s non-verbal behaviorBy delaying the interview until it can be done in person the subject will have time to develop a level of confidence because there has been no actionThis may reduce the effect of the stressors making it less likely they will admit to anything or demonstrate verbal or physical indicators of stress when they are finally questioned
39TechniquesFrom a procedural aspect, telephone interviews differ only slightly from in-person settingsPreparation is still the single most important piece of the processStructure is basically identical; establish rapport, move from general to specific, use short, simple open-ended questions, ask one at a time and follow up
40TechniquesDepending on circumstances, investigation characteristics and interviewer skill many of the methods used for in-person interviews can be employed effectively with telephone interviews
41TechniquesDemeanor of the interviewer is critical- professionals understand patience, persistence and compassion are needed in any interview situationThe techniques you use in face-to-face settings will work for the phone as well but you must do it all verballyTheme development, monologue, “Columbo” techniques will all work on the telephone
42TechniquesWhen conducting interviews with people considered as witnesses only, straightforward interrogatories are usually selectedOften this model is used as more of a process of elimination as opposed to a serious effort to collect informationThis model involves asking the subject a series of planned questions to determine knowledge of a particular eventThe danger is getting tunnel vision and failing to catch the nuance that may signal the subject is more that just a witness
43TechniquesWhen interviewing a “person of interest”, someone you have reason to believe is involved or committed the act, expect and plan for resistance.The use of monologue, probing and theme building techniques are some of the ways to handle resistance
46“Game Face” of the Interviewer Display non-judgmental acceptanceBuild and maintain rapportShow empathy and respectUse active listeningBe patientUse positive eye contactControl personal anger and valuesConstantly evaluate and assess subjectUse imagination
47Pre-contact Preparation Study the file, and develop a flexible interview structure.Determine a clear understanding of the interview objective.Consider the subject’s personality regarding habits and interests based upon available information to assess approach methods.
48Pre-contact Preparation Establish a clear understanding of the violation or infraction.Review any evidence that is available to focus the interview.Consider motivation: what would be the “benefit” to the individual to commit the violation or infraction?: Divert attention, jealousy, substance abuse issues, resentment, sympathy-seeking etc.Check for any recent emotional triggering events i.e., disciplinary action, passed for promotion, divorce, death, birth.
49Contact ActionsGreeting: the first few minutes set tone of entire session. Demonstrate human warmth with tone of voice, gestures and mannerisms (“para-linguistics” –communication associated with the spoken word).Seating: pre-determine where the subject will sit; Demonstrates interviewer control and does not allow subject to place barriers between themselves and the interviewer.
50Contact ActionsBegin behavioral analysis baseline development of the subject.Be aware that the subject also begins evaluating the situation and assessing intent, competence and motive of the interviewer (known as the IEP- interaction evaluation process) this continues throughout the interview.
51BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS Assists in questioning during an interview. If non-verbal does not agree with verbal communication, you should ask yourself “why?”No eye contactSquirmwringing handscross feet and uncrossstress increases.My speech class and unconscious movement of hands as ex.
52Behavioral AnalysisBehavior Analysis is helpful during an interview becauseit allows the interviewer to know when rapport is established, deception occurs or an admission is forthcoming.it helps analyze the subject’s response to questions about case facts
53Behavioral AnalysisIt is imperative that we do not make decisions about a subject’s truthfulness when we are the cause of the behaviorBe aware of cultural differencesDevelop rapport with the individual at every interview.
54Base Line Development Begin on initial contact with subject Continue to develop and refine assessments to “normal” circumstancesPay attention to verbal responses; rate of speaking, tone and pitch of voice, flow of speech, response times, “stutter-starts”, over-defining or excessive explanation of word choice or disclaimer statements on responsesPay attention to non-verbal behaviors; posture, hand movement, eye contact, grooming actions, gross body movement or position changesUse as a guide to assess change when correlated with a specific question
57Truthful vs. Deceptive Gross Body Movements: Truthful- hand movements opening and away from the body “open gesturing”Deceptive- hand movements towards the body during “hot" questioning, move away, move chair, need to leave the room, exaggerated movements
58Truthful vs. Deceptive Grooming Gestures: Truthful- nothing unduly noticeableDeceptive- brushing hair, picking lint from clothes, covering mouth or eyes with hand, checking fingernails, adjusting clothes, checking watch, retying shoes etc.
59Truthful vs. DeceptiveEye Contact:Truthful- 30% to 60%+ after rapport is established.Deceptive- minimal contact, difficulty in making contact, eyes break away on “hot” questions, 1000 yard stare
61Eye ContactA subject who is lying will usually have trouble sustaining normal eye contact.Watch for eye movement to the ceiling and walls- it can indicate stress associated with the question the interviewer just asked. Eye movement towards the floor with a slumping posture may indicate resignation or giving up.Do not stare at the subject or engage in a contest with them. It is a tactic used by subjects to relieve stress or buy time.No dark glasses for the subject or interviewer if possible.
62SELF-INITIATED VERBAL BEHAVIORS Principle: People who are lying tend to provide more self-induced verbal signs (i.e., answering before the complete question is asked) than people who are telling the truth.Therefore, the fewer spontaneous responses, the more likely it is that the person is not stressed on that particular point.Continuously interrupting may also be a sign unless this is the baseline established at the rapport building stage.
63SELF-INITIATED VERBAL BEHAVIORS Speech Patterns for Deceptive People:Stress induces changes in rate, volume etc.Tone may change and vary between overt angry or “growling” answers to whispersEstablish baseline in rapport building
64SELF-INITIATED VERBAL BEHAVIORS Other indicators of verbal deception:Over-friendly or excessive respectFlirtingHow the word No is used:InappropriatelySing-Song or repetitiveFinger pointing
65SELF-INITIATED VERBAL RESPONSES Additional indicators of verbal deception:Classic Non-Responses include:EvasiveRepeating the questionAsking you a questionEnvironmental Complaints are:Room temperatureHeadache, upset stomachChair is too hard
66SELF-INITIATED VERBAL RESPONSES Other verbal deception indicators:Use the “con” phrases:Why would I do that?“They” said something happened, I don’t know.Why would anyone do that?It’s probably an error.90% of the time a con phrase will precede a false statement
67BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS QUESTIONING Principle of this process:This is not a Polygraph- findings individually mean nothingAssess the baseline changes in response to questionsIdentify areas for further examinationMust be taken in context and repeated to be valid indicators
68Behavioral Analysis Questioning Used to analyze a subject’s emotional and or physical response to opinion or attitude questionsOpinion and attitude questions are sensitive because they involve the subject who is being questioned “What do you think should happen to the person who did this?”They trigger certain physiological responses more so than simple fact questionsTo get an accurate assessment the interviewer should use behavioral questions
69Interviewing Techniques Contact Information:Michael FerjakIowa Department of JusticeHoover State Office Building, 2nd FloorDes Moines, Iowa 50319CLEAR403 Marquis AvenueSuite 200Lexington, KY 40502Phone: (859)