2 Standard 7.4.3Describe the role of trans-Saharan caravan trade in the changing religious and cultural characteristics of West Africa and the influence of Islamic beliefs, ethics, and law.
3 Section Focus Question How did Mali become a great empire that reflected the influence of Islam?
4 Background KnowledgeGhana never recovered from the Almoravid invasion. But a new empire grew up in the same region. This section, will cover the growth of the Mali Empire. As well as the growing influence of Islam in West Africa.
7 The Rise of MaliGhana had ruled many small kingdoms. After the empire of Ghana fell, these kingdoms competed for power. The old caravan routes became dangerous, and trade suffered.
8 Sumanguru, the “Sorcerer King” In about 1203, Sumanguru took over what was left of the old empire of GhanaLegend says he was a cruel ruler and possessed a magical balafontaxed his subjectsStole goldkidnapped wives and daughterskilled anyone who might challenge his power.Killed 11 of the Malinke king’s 12 sons.Sundiata was crippled and left alive
9 Sundiata, the “Hungering Lion” In 1235, according to oral histories, Sundiata’s army crushed Sumanguru forces in a great battle.Legend states that Sundiata vanquished the evil Sumanguru by shoting him with an arrow tipped with the spur of a white rooster
10 A New EmpireSundiata’s victory marked the beginning of the new empire of Mali.conquered the gold-producing regionscontrolled the gold-salt trade.encouraged people to clear more land for farming.Sundiata became Mali’s national hero.Other rulers continued to expand the empire. By the 1300s, Mali was about the size of Western Europe.
11 CheckpointHow did Sundiata gain control of the gold-salt trade?
12 A Great Empire Mali had become a world power. Traded with Egypt, North Africa, and the nations of southern Europe.its wealth came from its control of the gold-salt trade.
13 A Great Empire Mali adopted the religion of Islam. Conversion to change religioncloser ties between Mali and North Africa that influenced the culture and customs of Mali.
24 Mansa Musa’s HajjIn 1324, Mansa Musa ,a deeply devout Muslim, made a hajjHe set off from Mali in a very splendid mannerThe king and all his servants, clothed in fine silks, were accompanied by more than 80 camels carrying heavy bags of gold dust
25 Mansa Musa’s Hajj He spent and gave away too much gold in Cairo he ran out of goldHe had to borrow money to finish his hajj.his spending upset the Egyptian economygold lost much of its value.Inflation - a general rise in prices
26 Islamic Culture in Mali Mansa Musa also spent his wealth to encourage Islamic learning.Brought Egyptian scholars, artists, and teachers with him.As-Saheli designed and built great mosques in Djenné, Gao, and TimbuktuTimbuktu became a center for Islamic scholarship and attracted students and teachers from North Africa and the Middle East
27 Expansion and Exploration Mansa Musa ruled Mali for 25 years. During his long reign, he extended Mali’s territory north and westward to the Atlantic Ocean.Mali’s rulers may have even tried to explore beyond Africa.King Abubakar II, Mansa Musa older brother, was said to have built a fleet of ships to explore the Atlantic Ocean only one ship returned.Then, he sent out an even greater fleet. The ships set out to sea and were never seen again.
28 Ibn Battuta Visits Mali In 1352, a Moroccan diplomat representing the sultan, Ibn Battuta, spent several months in Mali ruled by Mansa Suleiman, Musa’s brother and successorHe was impressed by the way its people strictly followed Islam.
30 Looking Back and AheadWe have read about the rise of the Mali Empire. You also learned about the growing influence of Islam in West Africa. In the next chapter, you will learn more about the cultures of West Africa.