Presentation on theme: "Road to the Revolutionary War: Acts and Taxes Ms. Koleczek/Mrs. Anderson Team Voyager."— Presentation transcript:
Road to the Revolutionary War: Acts and Taxes Ms. Koleczek/Mrs. Anderson Team Voyager
Words to Know! Writ of assistance-legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled Internal tax- taxes paid inside the colonies External tax- taxes paid when goods entered the colonies Act- a legal document stating the ideas of a committee (In our case, taxes) Coercive- to force someone to do something they do not want to do using intimidation (In our case, taxes)
Why Create the Acts? Britain was in great debt after the French and Indian War – William Pitt (Secretary of State of Britain) used any measure possible to secure victory – Created a giant amount of debt for the country
Why Create the Acts? Britain prohibited Colonists from moving west of the Appalachians to secure a constant trade source – To enforce this policy, the King placed 10,000 troops at the border – How will the King pay his soldiers? Tax the Colonists!
Navigation Acts Originally created in 1651 Strictly enforced in 1760 by writs of assistance – Why? Starting to gain debt from the French and Indian War! External tax Purpose – Anything imported or exported from the Colonies had to be shipped on British ships – 75% of crew had to be British – ONLY ALLOWED COLONIES TO TRADE WITH BRITAIN!
The Sugar Act Created in 1764 External tax Purpose – Lowered the tax on imported molasses Hoped this would encourage Colonists to pay the tax and not smuggle cheaper sugar in from other countries – Allowed officers to seize (or take without permission) goods from smugglers without going to court – Also taxed: wine, whale fins, silk
The Currency Act Created in 1764 Got rid of Colonists’ form of money – What did the Colonists have to use now? British pound The pound was based on gold, but there were not gold mines in the Colonies-Where did the colonies get the pounds? Britain shipped them over. Why would this upset the Colonists? – They now had to depend on Britain for one more thing: their money source. They lost some independence!
The Stamp Act Created in 1765 First internal tax! Purpose – Taxed most printed products: newspapers, wills, land deeds, legal documents and playing cards – All printed material received a stamp after tax was paid Why did this upset the Colonists? – Taxed without consent – Britain interfered with colonial affairs – Boycotted (refused to buy) British and European goods Repealed (canceled) because the merchants were losing business!
The Quartering Act Created in 1765 Purpose – Forced Colonists to provide housing and food to the troops Why would this upset the Colonists? –Invasion of privacy –Financial burden on the Colonists
The Declaratory Act Created in 1766 – Effective the day the Stamp Act was repealed Purpose – British government could create laws WHENEVER and HOWEVER they wanted – Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for Colonies “in all cases.”
The Townshend Acts Created in 1767 External tax Purpose – Tax only imported goods like paint/oil, glass, tea and paper at port of entry (where ever the goods entered the colonies) Any British tax angered Colonists – Boycotted – Daughters of Liberty made goods that were boycotted rather than buy the British goods
The Townshend Acts The Boston Massacre – March 5, 1770 – Colonists were frustrated with the taxes and formed a mob outside the tax collectors’ customhouse, which was protected by British soldiers – Sticks and stones were thrown, which frightened the tax collector – A soldier was knocked down, which caused other soldiers to fire – Five Colonists were killed – Townshend Acts repealed, except for the tax on tea
The Tea Act Created in 1773 Purpose – To save the British East India Company – Allowed BEIC total trade control over tea trade in America – Actually lowered cost of tea – BEIC was able to sell directly to shopkeepers Eliminated the merchants who normally distributed tea Why would this upset the Colonists?
The Tea Act The Boston Tea Party – December 16, 1773 – A group of male Colonists disguised as Mohawk Indians threw 342 chests of tea overboard Why????? Colonists were boycotting and forcing ships to turn back One ship did not, and the governor ordered it to be unloaded, which upset the Colonists
The Intolerable/Coercive Acts Created in 1774 once King George III heard news of the Boston Tea Party – “We must master them or totally leave them alone” Called Intolerable by Colonies Purpose – Punish and isolate the people of Massachusetts for resistance Other colonies supported Boston by sending them supplies – Closed Boston Harbor until Colonists paid for ruined tea – Took away rights Banned town meetings in New England except for one a year Forced to shelter troops
The Quebec Act Created in 1774 Purpose – Set up a government in Quebec – Gave Ohio River Valley to Quebec, which ignored the Colonists’ claims to the area