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Presentation on theme: "MEMORY & COGNITION Let’s See What You Can REMEMBER…"— Presentation transcript:


2  All mental activities involved in thinking, remembering, knowing, and communicating is called…  COGNITION

3  A mental grouping of similar objects, people, etc  concepts

4  Your mental image or best example of something that represents all of the features that we associate in that category is known as a…  prototype

5  If you are able to produce novel & valuable ideas then people would say you possess what skill?  Creativity

6  You are searching for oatmeal in trader joe’s so you go up and down every single aisle, a procedure that guarantees you will find it. What did you employ?  Algorithm

7  If you used a short cut (like looked in the breakfast aisle) to help you solve this problem, you used what thinking strategy?  Heuristic

8  You see images of terrorism often in the media and think acts of terrorism are on the rise (even though they are actually on the decline). What thinking strategy?  Availability Heuristic (we pay attention to all the drama available)

9  You enter the AP exam having not studied because you think you know EVERYTHING already. What has influenced your decision?  Overconfidence

10  You cling to the idea that Obama was born in Kenya even though there is plenty of evidence that proves you wrong. What phenomenon?  Belief perseverance

11  You are more likely to think the man on the left is a college professor over the man on the right. Why?  Representativeness heuristic (related to prototypes)

12  You feel very strongly about gun rights but only search for information that supports your argument and ignore any information that contradicts it. What phenomenon are you experiencing?  Confirmation bias

13  The way that you pose an issue can greatly affect decisions & judgments. If you have this skill, you are likely to be able to get lots of people to do what you want. (Politicians are brilliant at doing this and those who don’t use their brains are vulnerable)  Framing

14  You are stranded in the desert b/c your car broke down. You are SO thirsty, have bottles of IBC root beer in your car but no bottle opener. You don’t think to use your car keys to open the bottles. You are suffering from…  Functional Fixedness (think MacGuyver)

15  We usually want to use one way to solve a problem because it has been successful in the past. For example, when I went to England, I always pulled doors instead of pushing.  Mental Set

16  Solving a problem where there is one right answer is called thinking  When there are several right answers it is called thinking  Convergent  Divergent

17  List the 3 steps of memory  Encoding  Storage  Retrieval

18  You remember your first kiss because it was emotionally significant. What type of memory is that?  Flashbulb Memory

19  You repeat the first 10 presidents over and over and over. What memory strategy?  Rehearsal

20  You should space your studying over time and never cram. What strategy?  Spacing Effect

21  Whose research on memory found that spacing out learning and rehearsal helped in retaining new information and also is associated with the forgetting curve?  Herman Ebbinghaus

22  When trying to remember a list of items, what are you most likely to remember?  First (primacy) & last (recency)  This is associated with what larger idea?  Serial Position Effect

23  You are much more likely to remember something if you make it meaningful to you. What is this called?  Semantic encoding

24  When you organize information into manageable units, it is called… (think phone #s)  Chunking

25  Memory aids such as ROY G BIV are called…  Mnemonic devices

26  You need to remember a grocery list but forgot your phone. You take your items and in your mind place them around your house. What memory technique?  Method of Loci

27  All knowledge & experiences (explicit memory) are processed in what part of your brain?  Hippocampus

28  Implicit memories (you walk, ride a bike, playing an instrument) is processed in what part of your brain?  Cerebellum

29  When we play the bell game, you must retrieve information from your memory. This is called…  Recall  The FRQ

30  The multiple choice part of your AP exam is asking you to distinguish the correct answer among 4 others, called…  Recognition

31  When you're upset about something and start crying, you think about a bunch of other events that have made you sad and you cry more.  When you have a great evening with your boyfriend/girlfriend, you remember all of the great memories you have had with that person, and ignore the bad memories  Mood-congruent

32  Whose research on eyewitness testimony has shown us that it is extremely unreliable.  Elizabeth Loftus

33  After witnessing a car crash on the freeway, Sam tells friends many details about what she saw. But it turns out that there is no way she could have actually seen some of the details he described and that she is just reporting details he heard on TV about the accident. She isn’t deliberately lying. She just may not be able to remember where all the different pieces of information came from. What is this called?  Source Amnesia

34  We watched Brain Games and most people on the jury swore the woman involved in the robbery wore a red coat because one person mentioned it. They incorporated this incorrect piece of info into their memory. What is this called?  Misinformation Effect

35  When you are learning new information about WWII that blocks the old information about WWI, what are you experiencing?  Retroactive Interference  Proactive is when old info blocks new info


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