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Paul Mundy and Bob Huggan www.mamud.com 1 Matching words to readers.

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Presentation on theme: "Paul Mundy and Bob Huggan www.mamud.com 1 Matching words to readers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Paul Mundy and Bob Huggan 1 Matching words to readers

2 2 Problems with written words In face-to-face meetings, you can change the words if…  The other person looks puzzled  She looks angry or upset

3 3 Problems with written words But no instant feedback from the printed page: the words have to do all the work So they must be:  Words that the reader will understand  Words that will not raise any doubt about the meaning

4 4 How specialized can the words be? Should the language be technical? Should it use more common words? Consider the target audience before deciding

5 5 How formal should the language be? Printed info for professionals is usually formal Info for non-specialists is closer to the way we speak We often think that written words must be quite different from speech Some use long words and complicated sentences to impress readers But more likely to confuse, so readers give up Simple, friendly, conversational writing is often best

6 6 Are the words appropriate for your readers? Can readers understand the words you use? Can they recognize the words and ideas from their own experience or knowledge? For scientists:  Consumption of products containing high levels of hydrogenated fats can raise levels of LDL cholesterol, leading to atherosclerosis and enhanced risk of coronary infarction For consumers:  If you eat lots of fatty foods, your blood vessels may clog up, and you are more likely to have a heart attack

7 7 Are the words appropriate for your readers? For scientists:  Quantitative and metabolic studies indicate that females exhibit a stronger preference for carbohydrate before puberty while males prefer protein. For consumers:  Research shows that girls eat more bread and potatoes, while boys like to eat meat.

8 8 Are the words appropriate for your readers? For scientists:  The protective effect of physical activity against obesity is substantial and well known. For consumers:  Exercise stops you from gaining weight  Sport keeps you trim  Ever seen an overweight sprinter?

9 9 Ask a friend Think of a friend who is typical of your intended audience Could he/she understand your text? If still not sure, ask him/her to read some of the text and give you feedback

10 10 Rewrite this for these audiences Marine fisheries in south India have progressively increased by nearly six times during the past 55 years and major fish production comes from the coastal resources. About million people are said to be employed in the marine fisheries on a full-time basis, 1.01 million on a part-time basis and 1.39 million are engaged in other ancillary activities. Yet, ironically, the lives and livelihoods of the low income fisherfolk, who contribute so much to the national economy, is still a story of braving various uncertainties, risks, vulnerability and hardships. School- children Fishermen Policy- makers Scientists

11 11 Rewritten for Since 1953, the production of marine fish in southern India has grown nearly six-fold. Marine fisheries are thought to employ approximately 950,000 people full-time, another 1,000,000 part-time, and a further 1,400,000 in ancillary services. Although small-scale fishermen and -women contribute a great deal to the national economy, most remain poor, and their livelihoods are subject to uncertainty, risk, vulnerability and hardship. Since 1953, the production of marine fish in southern India has grown nearly six-fold. Marine fisheries are thought to employ approximately 950,000 people full-time, another 1,000,000 part-time, and a further 1,400,000 in ancillary services. Although small-scale fishermen and -women contribute a great deal to the national economy, most remain poor, and their livelihoods are subject to uncertainty, risk, vulnerability and hardship. Scientists

12 12 Rewritten for In 2008, marine fisheries in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu produced six times more than in Most production came from coastal waters. Marine fisheries employ nearly a million people full-time, another million part-time, and a further 1.4 million in related activities. But even though small-scale fishermen and - women contribute so much to the national economy, they still have to brave numerous uncertainties, risks, vulnerability and hardships. In 2008, marine fisheries in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu produced six times more than in Most production came from coastal waters. Marine fisheries employ nearly a million people full-time, another million part-time, and a further 1.4 million in related activities. But even though small-scale fishermen and - women contribute so much to the national economy, they still have to brave numerous uncertainties, risks, vulnerability and hardships. Policy- makers

13 13 Rewritten for Sea fishing is important in southern India. Fishers now catch six times than they did 50 years ago. Most fish comes from near the shore. Over 3 million people earn their living full-time or part time from fishing or related activities Many coastal towns and villages depend on fishing Many people eat fish caught by small-scale fishers. But fishing is a hard, risky life. Sea fishing is important in southern India. Fishers now catch six times than they did 50 years ago. Most fish comes from near the shore. Over 3 million people earn their living full-time or part time from fishing or related activities Many coastal towns and villages depend on fishing Many people eat fish caught by small-scale fishers. But fishing is a hard, risky life. Fishermen

14 14 Most of the fish we eat comes from the sea – and most comes from the shallow waters near the shore. School- children More than 3 million people in southern India earn their living from fishing and from processing and selling fish The more fish we catch, the fewer are left in the sea. Fishermen have to go out further to find fish. That is dangerous in a small boat. It costs more because the fisherman has to buy more fuel for the boat. Fishermen catch fewer fish, and have to spend more to find them s In 2008, six times more fish were caught than in the 1950s Rewritten for


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