Presentation on theme: "Westernization, Reforms, and Industrialization in Russia Chapter 25-2."— Presentation transcript:
Westernization, Reforms, and Industrialization in Russia Chapter 25-2
Major Czars and Czarinas of Russia Peter I, “The Great”1682 – 1725 – Czar / Tsar ( Щϲaр ) - - - “Emperor of all the Russias” Elizabeth1741 – 1762 Catherine II, “The Great”1762 – 1796 Alexander I1801 – 1825 Nicholas I1825 – 1855 Alexander II1855 – 1881 Alexander III1881 – 1894 (Saint) Nicholas II1894 – 1917
Catherine the Great (1762–1796) – German-born tsarina of Russia. – Influenced by Enlightenment thought, ruled as an enlightened despot. – The “royal thesis” of absolute rule with reforms in administration, law, and education. – Reforms of 1775 and 1785 allowed non-aristocrats to participate in urban manufactures, especially textiles.
In 1785 Catherine made the aristocracy more powerful by giving them more property rights including over serfs. Designed to prevent rebellion after Pugachev peasant revolt 1762–1775.
Catherine determined to expand Russia just as Peter the Great had done. Sided with Prussia and Austria to take apart Poland from 1772 to 1795. The “Polish Partition” Catherine upset by the radicalism and constitutionalism of French Revolution. – Banned Enlightenment books she once promoted.
Alexander I, grandson to Catherine, defeated by Napoleon at Austerlitz 1805. At a subsequent meeting, Napoleon forced Alexander to promise mutual aid and to accept French conquests in Europe. “Treaty of Tilset” At Congress of Vienna Alexander made king of Poland.
Decembrist Revolt against Nicholas I (1825–1855) by constitutionalist officers. Suppressed Results: – “Official Nationality” Orthodoxy: reaffirmed Eastern Orthodox Christianity; rejection of secularism. Autocracy: absolute authority of the tsar. Nationality: “spirit” of the Russian identity.
Nicholas I – Created a secret police called the Third Section to discourage dissidence. – Joined other monarchs in ending constitutional revolts, in Poland and Hungary. – But aided Greek independence to weaken Ottomans.
1828–1829 war with Ottomans Russia gained lands north of the Danube. – Moldavia and Wallachia became protectorates of Russia. Russia defeated in the Crimean War by coalition of Ottomans, British, and French. Both the Russians and Ottomans weak militarily. French and British responsible for winning the war.
1810–1853 was Russia’s Golden Age of intellectual and cultural activity. – Prominent writers include Pushkin and Gogol. Alexander II issued the Emancipation Edict in 1861 that liberated serfs. – Emancipation had limitations, such as payments to aristocracy for freedom. – Late emancipation of serfdom due to sparse population. – Followed by other reforms: organized local zemstva or councils. Military modernized by reducing duty service and improved quality of life. Reforms incomplete because they did not include a constitution.
“Nihilism” popularized by Turgenev – Fathers and Sons “Populism” another response to incomplete reform. Bakunin wrote about organizing small self- administering communities. Pan-Slavic movement emerged in 1870s, put Russia in charge of all Slavic people.
Pan-Slavic movement tied to religion – particularly active in Balkans. In 1877 Russia supported Bosnia-Herzegovina and Bulgaria against Ottomans. Congress of Berlin met 1878 to deal with “Eastern Question.” – Took European lands from Ottomans – Russia gives up Istanbul. Serbia, Romania, and Montenegro became independent states.
Alexander III (1881–1894) – enacted counter-reforms to increase autocratic control. – Made Russia a police state – Revolutionaries, terrorists, opponents exiled or killed. – Forced assimilation of non-Russian peoples. Nicholas II (1894–1917) instituted repressive policies, including pogroms against Jews. – Many Jews flee to the United States or Palestine.
Russian industrialization only accelerates after 1890 due to foreign investment. – Trans-Siberian railway built 1891–1905 links Moscow with Pacific Coast. – Industrialization led by Sergei Witte minister of finance 1892–1903. Wanted to make Russia competitive in world trade Link to Siberian agricultural and mineral resources. Expansion into East Asia led to war with Japan in 1904, a victory for Japan.
Defeat by Japan, low wages, long working hours, led to protests and strikes. – Social Democratic Labor Party founded by Lenin. – Split into Mensheviks (classical Marxism) Bolsheviks (radical). Social Revolutionary Party advocated capitalism. Revolution of 1905, 100,000 workers went on strike in St. Petersburg. – Troops attacked the strikers on “Bloody Sunday.” Nicholas II issued “October Manifesto” promising a constitution: – civil liberties – universal suffrage – creation of Duma Tsar renounced Manifesto; no reform until his abdication in 1917.