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Presentation on theme: "TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION Use the tab key, space bar, arrow keys, or page up/down to move through the slides. [Go to “Slide Show” pulldown."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION Use the tab key, space bar, arrow keys, or page up/down to move through the slides. [Go to “Slide Show” pulldown menu and click on “Play from Start.”] This presentation should be viewed in “Slide Show” view to display properly. These slides are optimized for PowerPoint versions 12 (2007/2008) and 14 (2010/2011). If viewed in earlier versions of PowerPoint, some slides may not display properly.

2 TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION John Langan © 2013 Townsend Press

3 RELATIONSHIPS II Chapter 5

4 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II In Chapter 4, you saw two common types of relationships: This chapter explains four other types of relationships: l Relationships that involve addition l Relationships that involve time l Relationships that involve illustration l Relationships that involve comparison and contrast l Relationships that involve cause and effect l Relationships that involve a problem and solution

5 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Most of these relationships involve transitional words and phrases, which are like signs on the road that guide travelers.

6 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II 1 Illustration Words That Show Illustration Which item below is easier to understand? A. Some common beliefs are really myths. Getting a chill will not give you a cold. B. Some common beliefs are really myths. For instance, getting a chill will not give you a cold.

7 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II A. Some common beliefs are really myths. Getting a chill will not give you a cold. B. Some common beliefs are really myths. For instance, getting a chill will not give you a cold. The second item is easier to follow. The words for instance make it clear that the belief a chill will lead to a cold is a myth. Illustration / Words That Show Illustration

8 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II B. Some common beliefs are really myths. For instance, getting a chill will not give you a cold. Illustration / Words That Show Illustration For instance and other words and phrases like it are illustration words. Illustration words indicate that an author will provide one or more examples to develop and clarify a given idea.

9 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / Words That Show Illustration Although they are children’s stories, famous fairy tales such as “Little Red Riding Hood” and “Snow White” are clearly filled with dark symbolic meanings. Here are some common words that show illustration: Examples A number of famous historical figures, including Beethoven, Charles Dickens, and Winston Churchill, suffered from depression. Illustration Words

10 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / Words That Show Illustration Although they are children’s stories, famous fairy tales such as “Little Red Riding Hood” and “Snow White” are clearly filled with dark symbolic meanings. Examples A number of famous historical figures, including Beethoven, Charles Dickens, and Winston Churchill, suffered from depression. In these examples, notice how the illustration words signal that one or more examples are coming.

11 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration The Definition and Example Pattern The definition and example pattern of organization includes just what its name suggests: a definition and one or more examples.

12 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern See if you can arrange the following sentences in a logical order. Which sentence should come first? Second? Third? A. For instance, anyone who has ever played a card game such as hearts is familiar with the heuristic to “Get rid of high cards first.” B. Informal problems often call for a heuristic—a rule of thumb that suggests a course of action without guaranteeing an optimal solution. C. Another example is the situation in which a student tries to decide whether to take a particular course and follows the advice to “Ask friends how they liked the instructor.”

13 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern Informal problems often call for a heuristic—a rule of thumb that suggests a course of action without guaranteeing an optimal solution. For instance, anyone who has ever played a card game such as hearts is familiar with the heuristic to “Get rid of high cards first.” Another example is the situation in which a student tries to decide whether to take a particular course and follows the advice to “Ask friends how they liked the instructor.” The sentences should read as follows: This paragraph begins with a definition of the word heuristic. The second sentence gives an example introduced by the words For instance. The third sentence then provides another example, introduced by the words Another example. Definition Example 1 Example 2

14 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern Informal problems often call for a heuristic—a rule of thumb that suggests a course of action without guaranteeing an optimal solution. For instance, anyone who has ever played a card game such as hearts is familiar with the heuristic to “Get rid of high cards first.” Another example is the situation in which a student tries to decide whether to take a particular course and follows the advice to “Ask friends how they liked the instructor.”

15 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern An important study hint: Textbook authors often take time to include key definitions. These ideas and terms are usually set off in italic or boldface type, and the definitions are signaled by such words as is, are, is called, termed, and refers to. Sound bites are short snippets of information aimed at dramatizing a news story rather than explaining its meaning in a substantive way. A decline in attention that occurs because a stimulus has become familiar is called habituation. Tracking refers to the smooth movements of the eye used to follow the track of a moving object. Examples of Definitions in Textbooks

16 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern Sound bites are short snippets of information aimed at dramatizing a news story rather than explaining its meaning in a substantive way. A decline in attention that occurs because a stimulus has become familiar is called habituation. Tracking refers to the smooth movements of the eye used to follow the track of a moving object. Examples of Definitions in Textbooks If an author defines a term, you can assume that it is important enough to learn. So when reading and taking notes on a textbook, always do two things: 1)Write down key definitions. 2)Write down helpful examples of definitions.

17 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern (1)The planning fallacy refers to the fact that people consistently overestimate how quickly and easily they will achieve a goal and underestimate the amount of time or effort that will be required to reach that goal. (2)In a study that examined the planning fallacy, college students were asked to list an academic project that had to be completed within the next week and to estimate when they intended to begin the project, when they expected to complete the project, and how many hours they expected to put into it. (3)A week later, the students were asked if they had completed the project and when. (4)Although all the students had estimated that they would complete the project comfortably in the time indicated, one week later more than half the projects remained incomplete. (5)Those that had been completed had typically taken, on average, nearly five days longer than had been estimated. (6)So much for planning! The following paragraph defines a word and gives an example of it.

18 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern (1)The planning fallacy refers to the fact that people consistently overestimate how quickly and easily they will achieve a goal and underestimate the amount of time or effort that will be required to reach that goal. (2)In a study that examined the planning fallacy, college students were asked to list an academic project that had to be completed within the next week and to estimate when they intended to begin the project, when they expected to complete the project, and how many hours they expected to put into it. (3)A week later, the students were asked if they had completed the project and when. (4)Although all the students had estimated that they would complete the project comfortably in the time indicated, one week later more than half the projects remained incomplete. (5)Those that had been completed had typically taken, on average, nearly five days longer than had been estimated. (6)So much for planning! What term is being defined?

19 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern (1)The planning fallacy refers to the fact that people consistently overestimate how quickly and easily they will achieve a goal and underestimate the amount of time or effort that will be required to reach that goal. (2)In a study that examined the planning fallacy, college students were asked to list an academic project that had to be completed within the next week and to estimate when they intended to begin the project, when they expected to complete the project, and how many hours they expected to put into it. (3)A week later, the students were asked if they had completed the project and when. (4)Although all the students had estimated that they would complete the project comfortably in the time indicated, one week later more than half the projects remained incomplete. (5)Those that had been completed had typically taken, on average, nearly five days longer than had been estimated. (6)So much for planning! What term is being defined? planning fallacy

20 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern (1)The planning fallacy refers to the fact that people consistently overestimate how quickly and easily they will achieve a goal and underestimate the amount of time or effort that will be required to reach that goal. (2)In a study that examined the planning fallacy, college students were asked to list an academic project that had to be completed within the next week and to estimate when they intended to begin the project, when they expected to complete the project, and how many hours they expected to put into it. (3)A week later, the students were asked if they had completed the project and when. (4)Although all the students had estimated that they would complete the project comfortably in the time indicated, one week later more than half the projects remained incomplete. (5)Those that had been completed had typically taken, on average, nearly five days longer than had been estimated. (6)So much for planning! Which sentence contains the definition?

21 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern (1)The planning fallacy refers to the fact that people consistently overestimate how quickly and easily they will achieve a goal and underestimate the amount of time or effort that will be required to reach that goal. (2)In a study that examined the planning fallacy, college students were asked to list an academic project that had to be completed within the next week and to estimate when they intended to begin the project, when they expected to complete the project, and how many hours they expected to put into it. (3)A week later, the students were asked if they had completed the project and when. (4)Although all the students had estimated that they would complete the project comfortably in the time indicated, one week later more than half the projects remained incomplete. (5)Those that had been completed had typically taken, on average, nearly five days longer than had been estimated. (6)So much for planning! Which sentence contains the definition? Definition

22 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern (1)The planning fallacy refers to the fact that people consistently overestimate how quickly and easily they will achieve a goal and underestimate the amount of time or effort that will be required to reach that goal. (2)In a study that examined the planning fallacy, college students were asked to list an academic project that had to be completed within the next week and to estimate when they intended to begin the project, when they expected to complete the project, and how many hours they expected to put into it. (3)A week later, the students were asked if they had completed the project and when. (4)Although all the students had estimated that they would complete the project comfortably in the time indicated, one week later more than half the projects remained incomplete. (5)Those that had been completed had typically taken, on average, nearly five days longer than had been estimated. (6)So much for planning! In which sentence does the example begin?

23 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Illustration / The Definition and Example Pattern (1)The planning fallacy refers to the fact that people consistently overestimate how quickly and easily they will achieve a goal and underestimate the amount of time or effort that will be required to reach that goal. (2)In a study that examined the planning fallacy, college students were asked to list an academic project that had to be completed within the next week and to estimate when they intended to begin the project, when they expected to complete the project, and how many hours they expected to put into it. (3)A week later, the students were asked if they had completed the project and when. (4)Although all the students had estimated that they would complete the project comfortably in the time indicated, one week later more than half the projects remained incomplete. (5)Those that had been completed had typically taken, on average, nearly five days longer than had been estimated. (6)So much for planning! The example begins in sentence 2 and continues through sentence 5. In which sentence does the example begin?

24 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Comparison and Contrast 2 Comparison and Contrast Words That Show Comparison Which item below is easier to understand? A. As a fish swims, it moves its tail, applying force against the water. The water, in turn, propels the fish forward. In a rocket motor, forces are exerted by hot gases that accelerate out the tail end, propelling the rocket forward. B. As a fish swims, it moves its tail, applying force against the water. The water, in turn, propels the fish forward. Similarly, in a rocket motor, forces are exerted by hot gases that accelerate out the tail end, propelling the rocket forward.

25 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / Words That Show Comparison Comparison and Contrast In the second item, the transition word similarly makes it clear that the author is comparing two forces. A. As a fish swims, it moves its tail, applying force against the water. The water, in turn, propels the fish forward. In a rocket motor, forces are exerted by hot gases that accelerate out the tail end, propelling the rocket forward. B. As a fish swims, it moves its tail, applying force against the water. The water, in turn, propels the fish forward. Similarly, in a rocket motor, forces are exerted by hot gases that accelerate out the tail end, propelling the rocket forward.

26 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Similarly and words like it are comparison words. Comparison words signal similarities. Authors use a comparison transition to show that a second idea is like the first one in some way. B. As a fish swims, it moves its tail, applying force against the water. The water, in turn, propels the fish forward. Similarly, in a rocket motor, forces are exerted by hot gases that accelerate out the tail end, propelling the rocket forward. / Words That Show Comparison Comparison and Contrast

27 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Very young and very old people resemble one another in their dependence upon those around them. Here are some common words that show comparison: Examples Car manufacturers often show beautiful women with their products, as if to suggest that owning the car will bring social rewards. In the same way, alcohol ads typically show people in fun or romantic settings. Comparison Words / Words That Show Comparison Comparison and Contrast

28 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Very young and very old people resemble one another in their dependence upon those around them. Examples Car manufacturers often show beautiful women with their products, as if to suggest that owning the car will bring social rewards. In the same way, alcohol ads typically show people in fun or romantic settings. / Words That Show Comparison Comparison and Contrast Notice how these comparison words show that things are alike in some way.

29 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Comparison and Contrast Words That Show Contrast Which item below is easier to understand? A. The movie was boring and pointless. It featured a talented cast and an award-winning screenwriter. B. The movie was boring and pointless even though it featured a talented cast and an award-winning screenwriter.

30 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Comparison and Contrast A. The movie was boring and pointless. It featured a talented cast and an award-winning screenwriter. B. The movie was boring and pointless even though it featured a talented cast and an award-winning screenwriter. The first item is puzzling. What connection does the writer intend between the first and second sentences? The words even though in the second item make it clear that the writer is disappointed that the movie fell short despite its cast and screenwriter. / Words That Show Contrast

31 Contrast words also inform us that something is going to differ from what we might expect. B. The movie was boring and pointless even though it featured a talented cast and an award-winning screenwriter. CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / Words That Show Contrast Comparison and Contrast Even though and words and phrases like it are contrast words. Contrast words signal that an author is pointing out differences between subjects. A contrast word shows that two things differ in one or more ways.

32 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / Words That Show Contrast Comparison and Contrast While mammals have internal mechanisms that regulate body temperature, cold-blooded animals such as lizards must regulate their temperature by external means, such as basking on warm sunny rocks. Here are some common words that show contrast: Examples Corporate executives urged employees to buy the company’s stock despite the fact that they were selling it themselves. Contrast Words

33 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / Words That Show Contrast Comparison and Contrast While mammals have internal mechanisms that regulate body temperature, cold-blooded animals such as lizards must regulate their temperature by external means, such as basking on warm sunny rocks. Examples Corporate executives urged employees to buy the company’s stock despite the fact that they were selling it themselves. Notice how these contrast words signal that one idea is different from another idea.

34 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Comparison and Contrast The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Authors use a comparison pattern to show how two things are alike. Authors use a contrast pattern to show how two things are different.

35 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Comparison and Contrast / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Sometimes an author will compare and contrast in the same paragraph, pointing out both similarities and differences between two things.

36 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast See if you can arrange the following sentences in a logical order. Which sentence should come first? Second? Third? A. However, gender differences remain in career choice and development. B. Women’s labor force participation is approaching that of men’s, with 60 percent of adult women (versus 74 percent of men) in the labor force. C. At present, married women still subordinate their career goals to their husbands’, especially when children are involved.

37 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast Women’s labor force participation is approaching that of men’s, with 60 percent of adult women (versus 74 percent of men) in the labor force. However, gender differences remain in career choice and development. At present, married women still subordinate their career goals to their husbands’, especially when children are involved. The sentences should read as follows: The paragraph begins with an introductory statement—that women’s labor force participation is becoming comparable to that of men’s. The main idea, that gender differences remain, is then presented in the sentence beginning with the contrast word However. The sentence that starts with At present gives an example of a significant gender difference—that women will subordinate their career choices to their husbands’.

38 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast The following paragraph will give you a better sense of the compare and/or contrast pattern. Men and women, of course, often have different concerns, so we might expect the content of their dreams to differ—and until recently, at least, that has been true. Typically, women have been more likely than men to dream about children, family members, familiar characters, friendly interactions, household objects, clothes, and indoor events. In contrast, men have been more likely than women to dream about strangers, weapons, violence, sexual activity, achievement, and outdoor events. But as the lives and concerns of the two sexes have become more similar, so have their dreams. In one recent study, the content of men’s and women’s dreams bore a close resemblance. Only two differences showed up: Men were more likely to dream about behaving aggressively, while women were more likely to dream about their anxieties. The main idea is stated in the first sentence. As is often the case, the main idea suggests a paragraph’s pattern of organization. Here the transition different is a hint that the paragraph may be organized as comparison or contrast (or both). different

39 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast Men and women, of course, often have different concerns, so we might expect the content of their dreams to differ—and until recently, at least, that has been true. Typically, women have been more likely than men to dream about children, family members, familiar characters, friendly interactions, household objects, clothes, and indoor events. In contrast, men have been more likely than women to dream about strangers, weapons, violence, sexual activity, achievement, and outdoor events. But as the lives and concerns of the two sexes have become more similar, so have their dreams. In one recent study, the content of men’s and women’s dreams bore a close resemblance. Only two differences showed up: Men were more likely to dream about behaving aggressively, while women were more likely to dream about their anxieties. Is the paragraph A. comparing? B. contrasting? C. comparing and contrasting?

40 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast Men and women, of course, often have different concerns, so we might expect the content of their dreams to differ—and until recently, at least, that has been true. Typically, women have been more likely than men to dream about children, family members, familiar characters, friendly interactions, household objects, clothes, and indoor events. In contrast, men have been more likely than women to dream about strangers, weapons, violence, sexual activity, achievement, and outdoor events. But as the lives and concerns of the two sexes have become more similar, so have their dreams. In one recent study, the content of men’s and women’s dreams bore a close resemblance. Only two differences showed up: Men were more likely to dream about behaving aggressively, while women were more likely to dream about their anxieties. Is the paragraph A. comparing? B. contrasting? C. comparing and contrasting? 3

41 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast Men and women, of course, often have different concerns, so we might expect the content of their dreams to differ—and until recently, at least, that has been true. Typically, women have been more likely than men to dream about children, family members, familiar characters, friendly interactions, household objects, clothes, and indoor events. In contrast, men have been more likely than women to dream about strangers, weapons, violence, sexual activity, achievement, and outdoor events. But as the lives and concerns of the two sexes have become more similar, so have their dreams. In one recent study, the content of men’s and women’s dreams bore a close resemblance. Only two differences showed up: Men were more likely to dream about behaving aggressively, while women were more likely to dream about their anxieties. What two things are being compared and contrasted?

42 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast Men and women, of course, often have different concerns, so we might expect the content of their dreams to differ—and until recently, at least, that has been true. Typically, women have been more likely than men to dream about children, family members, familiar characters, friendly interactions, household objects, clothes, and indoor events. In contrast, men have been more likely than women to dream about strangers, weapons, violence, sexual activity, achievement, and outdoor events. But as the lives and concerns of the two sexes have become more similar, so have their dreams. In one recent study, the content of men’s and women’s dreams bore a close resemblance. Only two differences showed up: Men were more likely to dream about behaving aggressively, while women were more likely to dream about their anxieties. What two things are being compared and contrasted? Men’s dreams and women’s dreams. 3

43 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast Men and women, of course, often have different concerns, so we might expect the content of their dreams to differ—and until recently, at least, that has been true. Typically, women have been more likely than men to dream about children, family members, familiar characters, friendly interactions, household objects, clothes, and indoor events. In contrast, men have been more likely than women to dream about strangers, weapons, violence, sexual activity, achievement, and outdoor events. But as the lives and concerns of the two sexes have become more similar, so have their dreams. In one recent study, the content of men’s and women’s dreams bore a close resemblance. Only two differences showed up: Men were more likely to dream about behaving aggressively, while women were more likely to dream about their anxieties. How many comparison and/or contrast signal words are used in this paragraph?

44 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast Men and women, of course, often have different concerns, so we might expect the content of their dreams to differ—and until recently, at least, that has been true. Typically, women have been more likely than men to dream about children, family members, familiar characters, friendly interactions, household objects, clothes, and indoor events. In contrast, men have been more likely than women to dream about strangers, weapons, violence, sexual activity, achievement, and outdoor events. But as the lives and concerns of the two sexes have become more similar, so have their dreams. In one recent study, the content of men’s and women’s dreams bore a close resemblance. Only two differences showed up: Men were more likely to dream about behaving aggressively, while women were more likely to dream about their anxieties. Eight comparison and/or contrast words are used. 3 Two comparison transitions are used. similar resemblance Six contrast transitions are used. different differ In contrast But differences while

45 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Comparison and/or Contrast Pattern Comparison and Contrast Men and women, of course, often have different concerns, so we might expect the content of their dreams to differ—and until recently, at least, that has been true. Typically, women have been more likely than men to dream about children, family members, familiar characters, friendly interactions, household objects, clothes, and indoor events. In contrast, men have been more likely than women to dream about strangers, weapons, violence, sexual activity, achievement, and outdoor events. But as the lives and concerns of the two sexes have become more similar, so have their dreams. In one recent study, the content of men’s and women’s dreams bore a close resemblance. Only two differences showed up: Men were more likely to dream about behaving aggressively, while women were more likely to dream about their anxieties.

46 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II 3 Cause and Effect Words That Show Cause and Effect Which item below is easier to understand? A. The best time to buy a car is near the end of the month. Car dealers often have a monthly quota of cars to sell. B. The best time to buy a car is near the end of the month because car dealers often have a monthly quota of cars to sell. Cause and Effect

47 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / Words That Show Cause and Effect Cause and Effect In the second item, the word because makes very clear just why the end of the month is the best time to buy a car. A. The best time to buy a car is near the end of the month. Car dealers often have a monthly quota of cars to sell. B. The best time to buy a car is near the end of the month because car dealers often have a monthly quota of cars to sell.

48 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / Words That Show Cause and Effect Cause and Effect Because and words like it are cause and effect words. Cause and effect words signal that the author is explaining the reason that something happened or the result of something happening. B. The best time to buy a car is near the end of the month because car dealers often have a monthly quota of cars to sell.

49 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / Words That Show Cause and Effect Cause and Effect Young babies have weak necks and relatively heavy heads. Consequently, it is important to support the baby’s head firmly when you hold him or her. Here are some common words that show cause and effect: Examples Do not refrigerate potatoes. The reason is that a potato’s starch will turn to sugar at low temperatures, making the vegetable taste odd. Cause and Effect Words

50 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / Words That Show Cause and Effect Cause and Effect Young babies have weak necks and relatively heavy heads. Consequently, it is important to support the baby’s head firmly when you hold him or her. Examples Do not refrigerate potatoes. The reason is that a potato’s starch will turn to sugar at low temperatures, making the vegetable taste odd. Notice how these cause and effect words introduce a reason for something or the results of something.

51 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect The Cause and Effect Pattern Information in a cause-effect pattern addresses the questions “Why does a behavior or event happen?” and/or “What are the results of a behavior or event?” An author may then discuss causes, or effects, or both causes and effects.

52 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II / The Cause and Effect Pattern Cause and Effect See if you can arrange the following sentences in a logical order. Which sentence should come first? Second? Third? A. Also, unemployment leads to an increased rate of attempted and completed suicides. B. Not only can it cause economic distress; it can result in health problems and psychological difficulties as well. C. Losing one’s job is difficult at best and devastating at worst.

53 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect Losing one’s job is difficult at best and devastating at worst. Not only can it cause economic distress; it can result in health problems and psychological difficulties as well. Also, unemployment leads to an increased rate of attempted and completed suicides. As the words cause, result in, and leads to suggest, this paragraph is organized in a cause and effect pattern. The sentences should read as follows: causeresult in leads to / The Cause and Effect Pattern

54 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect Losing one’s job is difficult at best and devastating at worst. Not only can it cause economic distress; it can result in health problems and psychological difficulties as well. Also, unemployment leads to an increased rate of attempted and completed suicides. As the words cause, result in, and leads to suggest, this paragraph is organized in a cause and effect pattern. The paragraph begins with the general idea: “Losing one’s job is difficult at best and devastating at worst.” “Losing one’s job” is the cause. The next two sentences give a detailed explanation of the results of losing one’s job: economic distress, health problems, psychological difficulties, increased suicide rate. / The Cause and Effect Pattern

55 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect Losing one’s job is difficult at best and devastating at worst. Not only can it cause economic distress; it can result in health problems and psychological difficulties as well. Also, unemployment leads to an increased rate of attempted and completed suicides. Cause: Losing one’s job Effect: Economic distress Effect: Health problems Effect: Psychological difficulties Effect: Increased suicide rate / The Cause and Effect Pattern

56 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect Losing one’s job is difficult at best and devastating at worst. Not only can it cause economic distress; it can result in health problems and psychological difficulties as well. Also, unemployment leads to an increased rate of attempted and completed suicides. Cause: Losing one’s job Effect: Economic distress Effect: Health problems Effect: Psychological difficulties Effect: Increased suicide rate / The Cause and Effect Pattern

57 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect The following paragraph describes one effect that is supported by three causes. / The Cause and Effect Pattern During the 1950s and 1960s, airports, bus terminals, and train stations often charged patrons to use the toilet. People would have to pay a ten- to twenty-five-cent fee before they entered a stall. Owners hoped that the fee would help pay for the cost of keeping the restrooms clean. But for several reasons, pay toilets failed miserably. For one thing, they angered patrons. People accustomed to accessing a restroom for free became upset when they discovered they had to pay. Many outraged bathroom- users vandalized the stalls and trashed the rooms in response, making cleanup even more expensive. In addition, pay toilets caused more trouble than they were worth. Employees had to be called in so often to fix broken locks that companies gradually realized the extra work wasn’t worth a few more dollars. A final explanation why pay toilets failed is that they triggered lawsuits from women’s groups who claimed the toilets were unfair because females were forced to pay regardless while males could use the urinals for free. Rather than spending money on high maintenance and lawsuits, companies opened the bathrooms for free use.

58 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect / The Cause and Effect Pattern During the 1950s and 1960s, airports, bus terminals, and train stations often charged patrons to use the toilet. People would have to pay a ten- to twenty-five-cent fee before they entered a stall. Owners hoped that the fee would help pay for the cost of keeping the restrooms clean. But for several reasons, pay toilets failed miserably. For one thing, they angered patrons. People accustomed to accessing a restroom for free became upset when they discovered they had to pay. Many outraged bathroom- users vandalized the stalls and trashed the rooms in response, making cleanup even more expensive. In addition, pay toilets caused more trouble than they were worth. Employees had to be called in so often to fix broken locks that companies gradually realized the extra work wasn’t worth a few more dollars. A final explanation why pay toilets failed is that they triggered lawsuits from women’s groups who claimed the toilets were unfair because females were forced to pay regardless while males could use the urinals for free. Rather than spending money on high maintenance and lawsuits, companies opened the bathrooms for free use. What is the single effect being discussed in the paragraph?

59 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect What is the single effect being discussed in the paragraph? The failure of pay toilets 3 The effect is stated as the paragraph’s main idea. The word reasons suggests a cause and effect pattern. / The Cause and Effect Pattern During the 1950s and 1960s, airports, bus terminals, and train stations often charged patrons to use the toilet. People would have to pay a ten- to twenty-five-cent fee before they entered a stall. Owners hoped that the fee would help pay for the cost of keeping the restrooms clean. But for several reasons, pay toilets failed miserably. For one thing, they angered patrons. People accustomed to accessing a restroom for free became upset when they discovered they had to pay. Many outraged bathroom- users vandalized the stalls and trashed the rooms in response, making cleanup even more expensive. In addition, pay toilets caused more trouble than they were worth. Employees had to be called in so often to fix broken locks that companies gradually realized the extra work wasn’t worth a few more dollars. A final explanation why pay toilets failed is that they triggered lawsuits from women’s groups who claimed the toilets were unfair because females were forced to pay regardless while males could use the urinals for free. Rather than spending money on high maintenance and lawsuits, companies opened the bathrooms for free use. reasons

60 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect What are the three causes discussed? / The Cause and Effect Pattern During the 1950s and 1960s, airports, bus terminals, and train stations often charged patrons to use the toilet. People would have to pay a ten- to twenty-five-cent fee before they entered a stall. Owners hoped that the fee would help pay for the cost of keeping the restrooms clean. But for several reasons, pay toilets failed miserably. For one thing, they angered patrons. People accustomed to accessing a restroom for free became upset when they discovered they had to pay. Many outraged bathroom- users vandalized the stalls and trashed the rooms in response, making cleanup even more expensive. In addition, pay toilets caused more trouble than they were worth. Employees had to be called in so often to fix broken locks that companies gradually realized the extra work wasn’t worth a few more dollars. A final explanation why pay toilets failed is that they triggered lawsuits from women’s groups who claimed the toilets were unfair because females were forced to pay regardless while males could use the urinals for free. Rather than spending money on high maintenance and lawsuits, companies opened the bathrooms for free use.

61 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect What are the three causes discussed? They angered patrons. They caused more trouble than they were worth. They triggered lawsuits from women’s groups. / The Cause and Effect Pattern During the 1950s and 1960s, airports, bus terminals, and train stations often charged patrons to use the toilet. People would have to pay a ten- to twenty-five-cent fee before they entered a stall. Owners hoped that the fee would help pay for the cost of keeping the restrooms clean. But for several reasons, pay toilets failed miserably. For one thing, they angered patrons. People accustomed to accessing a restroom for free became upset when they discovered they had to pay. Many outraged bathroom- users vandalized the stalls and trashed the rooms in response, making cleanup even more expensive. In addition, pay toilets caused more trouble than they were worth. Employees had to be called in so often to fix broken locks that companies gradually realized the extra work wasn’t worth a few more dollars. A final explanation why pay toilets failed is that they triggered lawsuits from women’s groups who claimed the toilets were unfair because females were forced to pay regardless while males could use the urinals for free. Rather than spending money on high maintenance and lawsuits, companies opened the bathrooms for free use. 2 1 3 1 2 3

62 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect What three cause and effect transitions are used in the paragraph? / The Cause and Effect Pattern During the 1950s and 1960s, airports, bus terminals, and train stations often charged patrons to use the toilet. People would have to pay a ten- to twenty-five-cent fee before they entered a stall. Owners hoped that the fee would help pay for the cost of keeping the restrooms clean. But for several reasons, pay toilets failed miserably. For one thing, they angered patrons. People accustomed to accessing a restroom for free became upset when they discovered they had to pay. Many outraged bathroom- users vandalized the stalls and trashed the rooms in response, making cleanup even more expensive. In addition, pay toilets caused more trouble than they were worth. Employees had to be called in so often to fix broken locks that companies gradually realized the extra work wasn’t worth a few more dollars. A final explanation why pay toilets failed is that they triggered lawsuits from women’s groups who claimed the toilets were unfair because females were forced to pay regardless while males could use the urinals for free. Rather than spending money on high maintenance and lawsuits, companies opened the bathrooms for free use.

63 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect What three cause and effect transitions are used in the paragraph? / The Cause and Effect Pattern During the 1950s and 1960s, airports, bus terminals, and train stations often charged patrons to use the toilet. People would have to pay a ten- to twenty-five-cent fee before they entered a stall. Owners hoped that the fee would help pay for the cost of keeping the restrooms clean. But for several reasons, pay toilets failed miserably. For one thing, they angered patrons. People accustomed to accessing a restroom for free became upset when they discovered they had to pay. Many outraged bathroom- users vandalized the stalls and trashed the rooms in response, making cleanup even more expensive. In addition, pay toilets caused more trouble than they were worth. Employees had to be called in so often to fix broken locks that companies gradually realized the extra work wasn’t worth a few more dollars. A final explanation why pay toilets failed is that they triggered lawsuits from women’s groups who claimed the toilets were unfair because females were forced to pay regardless while males could use the urinals for free. Rather than spending money on high maintenance and lawsuits, companies opened the bathrooms for free use. reasons caused explanation

64 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect / The Cause and Effect Pattern Effect: The failure of pay toilets Cause: They angered patrons. Cause: They caused more trouble than they were worth. Cause: They triggered lawsuits from women’s groups. During the 1950s and 1960s, airports, bus terminals, and train stations often charged patrons to use the toilet. People would have to pay a ten- to twenty-five-cent fee before they entered a stall. Owners hoped that the fee would help pay for the cost of keeping the restrooms clean. But for several reasons, pay toilets failed miserably. For one thing, they angered patrons. People accustomed to accessing a restroom for free became upset when they discovered they had to pay. Many outraged bathroom- users vandalized the stalls and trashed the rooms in response, making cleanup even more expensive. In addition, pay toilets caused more trouble than they were worth. Employees had to be called in so often to fix broken locks that companies gradually realized the extra work wasn’t worth a few more dollars. A final explanation why pay toilets failed is that they triggered lawsuits from women’s groups who claimed the toilets were unfair because females were forced to pay regardless while males could use the urinals for free. Rather than spending money on high maintenance and lawsuits, companies opened the bathrooms for free use.

65 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Cause and Effect / The Cause and Effect Pattern Effect: The failure of pay toilets Cause: They angered patrons. Cause: They caused more trouble than they were worth. Cause: They triggered lawsuits from women’s groups. During the 1950s and 1960s, airports, bus terminals, and train stations often charged patrons to use the toilet. People would have to pay a ten- to twenty-five-cent fee before they entered a stall. Owners hoped that the fee would help pay for the cost of keeping the restrooms clean. But for several reasons, pay toilets failed miserably. For one thing, they angered patrons. People accustomed to accessing a restroom for free became upset when they discovered they had to pay. Many outraged bathroom- users vandalized the stalls and trashed the rooms in response, making cleanup even more expensive. In addition, pay toilets caused more trouble than they were worth. Employees had to be called in so often to fix broken locks that companies gradually realized the extra work wasn’t worth a few more dollars. A final explanation why pay toilets failed is that they triggered lawsuits from women’s groups who claimed the toilets were unfair because females were forced to pay regardless while males could use the urinals for free. Rather than spending money on high maintenance and lawsuits, companies opened the bathrooms for free use.

66 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II 4 Problem and Solution What is the relationship between these two sentences? Speaking in front of a class is something that terrifies many students. Practicing in front of friends or with a video camera may prevent you from freezing up on the day of the presentation. Problem and Solution

67 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution What is the relationship between these two sentences? Speaking in front of a class is something that terrifies many students. Practicing in front of friends or with a video camera may prevent you from freezing up on the day of the presentation. Problem and Solution 3 Problem Solution

68 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution Unlike the relationship patterns we have studied so far, the relationship of problem to solution does not involve transitional words or phrases. Rather, the relationship usually involves an action that is taken to correct or resolve a negative situation.

69 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution Every year, tens of millions of trees have to be cut down to provide the paper that goes into book manufacturing. Examples During the War of 1812, the British burned Washington, D.C., destroying the Library of Congress. Problem Solution Problem Solution Electronic readers such as the Kindle, Nook, and iPad have decreased the need for paper in the book publishing industry. Thomas Jefferson immediately offered his entire library of 6,487 books to create a new national library. Notice how the second sentence offers a solution to the negative situation (problem) stated in the first sentence.

70 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution The Problem and Solution Pattern Information in a problem-solution pattern addresses the questions “What problem is occurring or has occurred?” and “What action or actions have been taken to solve the problem?”

71 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution / The Problem and Solution Pattern See if you can arrange the following sentences in a logical order. Which sentence should come first? Second? Third? A. Most try to quit “cold turkey”—that is, they decide simply not to smoke again. B. Smokers who decide to quit must break through both physical addiction to nicotine and the habit of lighting up at certain times of day. C. Others use nicotine replacement products such as nicotine chewing gum and the nicotine patch.

72 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution / The Problem and Solution Pattern The first sentence introduces the problem—that it is difficult to quit smoking. The sentences should read as follows: Smokers who decide to quit must break through both physical addiction to nicotine and the habit of lighting up at certain times of day. Most try to quit “cold turkey”—that is, they decide simply not to smoke again. Others use nicotine replacement products such as nicotine chewing gum and the nicotine patch. The second sentence offers one solution to the problem of quitting smoking. The third sentence offers another solution to the problem. Problem Solution 1Solution 2

73 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution / The Problem and Solution Pattern During major earthquakes, most casualties occur when buildings collapse. There are two ways to keep buildings from collapsing during earthquakes. One way is to make them stronger, using higher-grade building materials. Another way is to make them more flexible, so they sway and slide above the shaking ground rather than crumbling. The latter technology employs an idea called “base isolation.” With base isolation, buildings don’t sit directly on the ground, but rather float on systems of ball bearings, springs, and padded cylinders. In the event of a major earthquake, they sway up to a few feet rather than collapse. The buildings are surrounded by “moats,” or buffer zones, so they don’t swing into other structures. Earthquake-resistant buildings save lives. When an 8.8- magnitude earthquake struck Chile in February 2010, it killed far fewer people (about 700) than a 7.0-magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti a month earlier. The reason was that Chile, a richer and more industrialized nation, had far more buildings that were built to withstand earthquakes than did Haiti. The following paragraph uses the problem-solution pattern.

74 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution / The Problem and Solution Pattern During major earthquakes, most casualties occur when buildings collapse. There are two ways to keep buildings from collapsing during earthquakes. One way is to make them stronger, using higher-grade building materials. Another way is to make them more flexible, so they sway and slide above the shaking ground rather than crumbling. The latter technology employs an idea called “base isolation.” With base isolation, buildings don’t sit directly on the ground, but rather float on systems of ball bearings, springs, and padded cylinders. In the event of a major earthquake, they sway up to a few feet rather than collapse. The buildings are surrounded by “moats,” or buffer zones, so they don’t swing into other structures. Earthquake-resistant buildings save lives. When an 8.8- magnitude earthquake struck Chile in February 2010, it killed far fewer people (about 700) than a 7.0-magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti a month earlier. The reason was that Chile, a richer and more industrialized nation, had far more buildings that were built to withstand earthquakes than did Haiti. What is problem being discussed in the paragraph?

75 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution / The Problem and Solution Pattern During major earthquakes, most casualties occur when buildings collapse. There are two ways to keep buildings from collapsing during earthquakes. One way is to make them stronger, using higher-grade building materials. Another way is to make them more flexible, so they sway and slide above the shaking ground rather than crumbling. The latter technology employs an idea called “base isolation.” With base isolation, buildings don’t sit directly on the ground, but rather float on systems of ball bearings, springs, and padded cylinders. In the event of a major earthquake, they sway up to a few feet rather than collapse. The buildings are surrounded by “moats,” or buffer zones, so they don’t swing into other structures. Earthquake-resistant buildings save lives. When an 8.8- magnitude earthquake struck Chile in February 2010, it killed far fewer people (about 700) than a 7.0-magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti a month earlier. The reason was that Chile, a richer and more industrialized nation, had far more buildings that were built to withstand earthquakes than did Haiti. The fact that buildings collapse during earthquakes, causing casualties. The problem is stated in the first sentence. 3 Problem

76 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution / The Problem and Solution Pattern During major earthquakes, most casualties occur when buildings collapse. There are two ways to keep buildings from collapsing during earthquakes. One way is to make them stronger, using higher-grade building materials. Another way is to make them more flexible, so they sway and slide above the shaking ground rather than crumbling. The latter technology employs an idea called “base isolation.” With base isolation, buildings don’t sit directly on the ground, but rather float on systems of ball bearings, springs, and padded cylinders. In the event of a major earthquake, they sway up to a few feet rather than collapse. The buildings are surrounded by “moats,” or buffer zones, so they don’t swing into other structures. Earthquake-resistant buildings save lives. When an 8.8- magnitude earthquake struck Chile in February 2010, it killed far fewer people (about 700) than a 7.0-magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti a month earlier. The reason was that Chile, a richer and more industrialized nation, had far more buildings that were built to withstand earthquakes than did Haiti. What are the two solutions to the problem?

77 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution / The Problem and Solution Pattern During major earthquakes, most casualties occur when buildings collapse. There are two ways to keep buildings from collapsing during earthquakes. One way is to make them stronger, using higher-grade building materials. Another way is to make them more flexible, so they sway and slide above the shaking ground rather than crumbling. The latter technology employs an idea called “base isolation.” With base isolation, buildings don’t sit directly on the ground, but rather float on systems of ball bearings, springs, and padded cylinders. In the event of a major earthquake, they sway up to a few feet rather than collapse. The buildings are surrounded by “moats,” or buffer zones, so they don’t swing into other structures. Earthquake-resistant buildings save lives. When an 8.8- magnitude earthquake struck Chile in February 2010, it killed far fewer people (about 700) than a 7.0-magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti a month earlier. The reason was that Chile, a richer and more industrialized nation, had far more buildings that were built to withstand earthquakes than did Haiti. Constructing buildings out of higher-grade materials 3 Making buildings more flexible 3 Solution 1Solution 2

78 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Problem and Solution / The Problem and Solution Pattern During major earthquakes, most casualties occur when buildings collapse. There are two ways to keep buildings from collapsing during earthquakes. One way is to make them stronger, using higher-grade building materials. Another way is to make them more flexible, so they sway and slide above the shaking ground rather than crumbling. The latter technology employs an idea called “base isolation.” With base isolation, buildings don’t sit directly on the ground, but rather float on systems of ball bearings, springs, and padded cylinders. In the event of a major earthquake, they sway up to a few feet rather than collapse. The buildings are surrounded by “moats,” or buffer zones, so they don’t swing into other structures. Earthquake-resistant buildings save lives. When an 8.8- magnitude earthquake struck Chile in February 2010, it killed far fewer people (about 700) than a 7.0-magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti a month earlier. The reason was that Chile, a richer and more industrialized nation, had far more buildings that were built to withstand earthquakes than did Haiti. The rest of the paragraph elaborates on the second method of making buildings earthquake-resistant. It also provides an example of how buildings that were constructed to withstand earthquakes saved lives in Chile, while buildings that were not built to withstand earthquakes led to great loss of life in Haiti.

79 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II A Final Point Keep in mind that a paragraph or passage may often be made up of more than one pattern of organization.

80 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II A Final Point For instance, consider the following passage: The gestation period (length of pregnancy) of mammals depends on two factors. The first is the mammal’s size. In general, smaller animals experience shorter pregnancies. For example, a female rat gives birth only twenty-one days after becoming pregnant; a hamster’s gestation period is only sixteen days; a horse, however, is pregnant for about forty-eight weeks. The second factor that determines the gestation period is life span—longer-lived animals have longer pregnancies. The gestation period of a lion, which can live up to twenty-eight years, is fifteen weeks. Dolphins, which have lived as long as forty years, are pregnant for thirty-nine weeks. You can see the relationship between gestation period and life span when you compare a possum to a cat. Although the possum is slightly larger than a cat, it has a much shorter gestation period (thirteen days to the cat’s sixty-two days). But cats can live up to twenty years, while possums are elderly at 3. The paragraph uses a cause-effect pattern: The length of pregnancy of mammals is caused by two factors. depends on Effect Cause 1 Cause 2

81 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II A Final Point The gestation period (length of pregnancy) of mammals depends on two factors. The first is the mammal’s size. In general, smaller animals experience shorter pregnancies. For example, a female rat gives birth only twenty-one days after becoming pregnant; a hamster’s gestation period is only sixteen days; a horse, however, is pregnant for about forty-eight weeks. The second factor that determines the gestation period is life span—longer-lived animals have longer pregnancies. The gestation period of a lion, which can live up to twenty-eight years, is fifteen weeks. Dolphins, which have lived as long as forty years, are pregnant for thirty-nine weeks. You can see the relationship between gestation period and life span when you compare a possum to a cat. Although the possum is slightly larger than a cat, it has a much shorter gestation period (thirteen days to the cat’s sixty-two days). But cats can live up to twenty years, while possums are elderly at 3. The paragraph uses a cause-effect pattern: The length of pregnancy of mammals is caused by two factors. It also uses a list of items pattern (the two factors). 2 1

82 There is also a bit of comparison and contrast. CHAPTER 5 Relationships II A Final Point The gestation period (length of pregnancy) of mammals depends on two factors. The first is the mammal’s size. In general, smaller animals experience shorter pregnancies. For example, a female rat gives birth only twenty-one days after becoming pregnant; a hamster’s gestation period is only sixteen days; a horse, however, is pregnant for about forty-eight weeks. The second factor that determines the gestation period is life span—longer-lived animals have longer pregnancies. The gestation period of a lion, which can live up to twenty-eight years, is fifteen weeks. Dolphins, which have lived as long as forty years, are pregnant for thirty-nine weeks. You can see the relationship between gestation period and life span when you compare a possum to a cat. Although the possum is slightly larger than a cat, it has a much shorter gestation period (thirteen days to the cat’s sixty-two days). But cats can live up to twenty years, while possums are elderly at 3. The paragraph uses a cause-effect pattern: The length of pregnancy of mammals is caused by two factors. compare however But Although It also uses a list of items pattern (the two factors).

83 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II A Final Point The gestation period (length of pregnancy) of mammals depends on two factors. The first is the mammal’s size. In general, smaller animals experience shorter pregnancies. For example, a female rat gives birth only twenty-one days after becoming pregnant; a hamster’s gestation period is only sixteen days; a horse, however, is pregnant for about forty-eight weeks. The second factor that determines the gestation period is life span—longer-lived animals have longer pregnancies. The gestation period of a lion, which can live up to twenty-eight years, is fifteen weeks. Dolphins, which have lived as long as forty years, are pregnant for thirty-nine weeks. You can see the relationship between gestation period and life span when you compare a possum to a cat. Although the possum is slightly larger than a cat, it has a much shorter gestation period (thirteen days to the cat’s sixty-two days). But cats can live up to twenty years, while possums are elderly at 3. compare however But Although depends on

84 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Continued on next slide

85 CHAPTER 5 Relationships II Continued


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