Presentation on theme: "Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia Cade Moses, DVM. What is AIP? It is a cause for severe pulmonary symptoms that often end in death It has a rapid onset."— Presentation transcript:
Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia Cade Moses, DVM
What is AIP? It is a cause for severe pulmonary symptoms that often end in death It has a rapid onset Cattle are often exhibit open mouth breathing and stretched neck with an expiratory grunt. This is due to air being physically pushed out of lungs with abdominal press. Looks different than many typical pneumonias in which the effort is on the in-breath.
Heat Stress or AIP?
This posture can be heart failure, heat stress, chronic pneumonia, or AIP Necropsy exam is a must!!
Pathology Inflammation and widening of the connective tissue of the lungs. Widened septae Usually not a lot of fibrin and adhesions Failure of lungs to collapse easily May see large trapped air pockets (bulla) as well as smaller gas bubbles in septae (emphysema) Lungs are heavy and sometimes “wet” The most affected areas are in the dorsal or higher portion of the lung The lower lung may be consolidated (no air) due to secondary bacterial infection
What is the cause? We don’t really know! The syndrome in cows is well understood. Cows are transitioned rapidly to a high protein diet (specifically high in the amino acid L- tryptophan) The L-tryptophan metabolism in the rumen releases 3-methylindole which is a lung toxin The syndrome in feedlot cattle is not well understood
AIP Syndrome in Cows The syndrome is also called “fog fever” in reference to dead cattle found in the lush mountain valleys where the fog settled. (high protein grass) Rumensin has a protective effect in cows possibly by reducing the number of Lactobacillus bacteria which convert L- tryptophan to 3-MI
AIP Syndrome in Feedlot Cattle Many possible triggers theorized BRSV virus Dust inhalation Bacterial infection (lung or liver) Protein rich diet MGA Inhalation of fungus GI upset or acidosis Heat Feed Change
AIP Syndrome in Feedlot Cattle Cattle are usually affected later in the feeding period Bigger economic loss for the producer Heifers seem to be more affected Heavier cattle seem to be more affected
AIP cause definition “The disease is related to the interplay of feed intake, feed composition, sex and physiologic maturity, and possible environmental triggers”
Can it be Controlled? At this point best bet is to control the risk factors (remember none of these are proven) BRSV virus Ensure cattle are properly vaccinated, if using a 2 dose product for BRSV, give the 2 nd dose Dust inhalation Control dust with scaping/sprinking if possible Bacterial infection (lung or liver) Medicated feed for liver abscess Protein rich diet Protein usually not that high in finish rations
Can it be Controlled? MGA Ensure regular consumption. Theorized that heifers fluctuate intake during weather or ration changes Inhalation of fungus Avoid moldy feedstuffs and hay dust GI upset or acidosis Ration changes Heat Heat stress protocol. Keep a sharp eye during hot weather Feed Change Beware during times of changing rations and feedstuffs
Treatment Options Mostly supportive Give a short withdrawl antibiotic that has good coverage against lung pathogens Treat with IV fluniximine for inflammation Consider dexamethsone for inflammation Some have tried furosemide in attempt to “dry out lungs” Reduce stress as much as possible Shade, comfortable pen (move slow), easy access to feed/water
AIP Diagnosis Clinical signs will give a pretty good determination Necropsy all AIP deads to confirm that they are not being misdiagnosed and mistreated