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Launching the New Ship of State 1789-1800 Chapter 10.

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1 Launching the New Ship of State Chapter 10

2 New Constitution and Government take effect on April 30, Washington begins his presidency in New York City and alternates between there and Philadelphia. Capital city at this time was New York City. New Constitution and Government take effect on April 30, Washington begins his presidency in New York City and alternates between there and Philadelphia. Capital city at this time was New York City.

3 Precedents are models, examples or influences other Presidents would follow What to call the President? Mr. President President sets their own personal style Cabinet appointed by President and advises him VP has no official duties President acts independent from Congress Congress relies on the advice of the President Served 2 terms and stepped aside for someone else

4 Department of State-----Foreign affairs Thomas Jefferson----Secretary of State Department of State-----Foreign affairs Thomas Jefferson----Secretary of State Cabinet advises the President and heads up an agency of the government Department of Treasury---Financial affairs Alexander Hamilton—Secretary of the Treasury Department of War Military affairs Henry Knox----Secretary of War General- Attorney Legal affairs Edmund Randolph---Department of Justice Postmaster General Postal system Samuel Osgood

5 1.FREEDOM of Religion, Press, Speech, Assembly, Petition 2.RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS 3.No QUARTERING of soldiers in peacetime 4.NO UNREASONABLE SEARCH and SEIZURE 5.PROTECTION of ACCUSED 6.RIGHT TO A SPEEDY, PUBLIC TRIAL BY JURY 7.TRIAL BY JURY IN CIVIL SUITS 8.NO EXCESSIVE FINES or CRUEL PUNISHMENT 9.POWERS RESERVED TO THE PEOPLE 10.POWERS RESERVED TO THE STATES First 10 Amendments to the Constitution in 1791 Rights and freedoms won in the Revolution are preserved and protected…

6 John Jay first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court President Washington appoints 6 justices to the Supreme CourtPresident Washington appoints 6 justices to the Supreme Court 3 from North and 3 from South3 from North and 3 from South Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress created lower courts to assist the Supreme Court.Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress created lower courts to assist the Supreme Court. President Washington appoints 6 justices to the Supreme CourtPresident Washington appoints 6 justices to the Supreme Court 3 from North and 3 from South3 from North and 3 from South Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress created lower courts to assist the Supreme Court.Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress created lower courts to assist the Supreme Court.

7 Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson played a valuable role in the beginning of our nation.Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson played a valuable role in the beginning of our nation. Both were visionaries and influenced the direction our country would go economically, politically and socially.Both were visionaries and influenced the direction our country would go economically, politically and socially. President Washington was stuck in the middle of these two men as they argued over our country’s beginnings.President Washington was stuck in the middle of these two men as they argued over our country’s beginnings.

8 Foreign Debt $11,710,000 Federal Domestic Debt $42,414,000 State Debt $21,500,000 Custom Duties (Tariffs) Excise Tax on Whiskey Misc. Revenue Congress & Sec. of Treasury Alexander Hamilton solve debt problems: Pay off $80 million debt Excise tax: Taxes placed on manufactured products Tariff: a tax on imports Establish good credit with foreign nations Create a national bank with a national currency Raise money for govt backed by gold silver Compromise with Thomas Jefferson called the Assumption Act led to the creation of Washington, D.C.

9 HAMILTON Safe place to deposit and transfer money Provide loans to government and state banks A national currency---$$$$$ An investment by people to buy stock into US bank Constitution did not forbid a national bank….Loose construction of Constitution National debt good for countryJEFFERSON Against the Constitution State banks would collapse Only wealthy could invest in bank and would control bank than control the government Hurt the common man Strict construction…If it is not mentioned in the Constitution than there can’t be a national bank. Against a national debt BUS

10 Farmer’s revolt in western Pennsylvania.Farmer’s revolt in western Pennsylvania. Refused to pay Hamilton’ s excise taxRefused to pay Hamilton’ s excise tax Believed it was an unfair tax.Believed it was an unfair tax. Were called the “Whiskey Rebels”Were called the “Whiskey Rebels”

11 Issue at hand was testing the power of the new ConstitutionIssue at hand was testing the power of the new ConstitutionOutcome: Demonstrated to the people that this new constitution was powerful enough to put down domestic rebellions, “mobocracy”Demonstrated to the people that this new constitution was powerful enough to put down domestic rebellions, “mobocracy” Showed the power of the national governmentShowed the power of the national government President Washington reviews 13,000 troops of the Western Army assembled at Fort Cumberland, Maryland, to crush the Whiskey Rebellion. Whiskey

12 Federalist Beliefs (former Anti-Federalists) Democratic-Republicans Leader Appealed to Alexander Hamilton John Adams Thomas Jefferson James Madison Manufacturers, merchants, wealthy and educated…. Favored seaboard cities Farmers and Planters common man Favored the South and West Ideas of Government Loose Construction Strong government over states Loose Construction of Constitution Implied powersImplied powers Wealthy and educated involved Limit freedoms of speech & press Preferred govt. similar to a king Strict construction State’s rights over National Govt. Strict construction of Constitution Expressed/Enumerated powersExpressed/Enumerated powers Common man but educated Bill of Rights is sacred Lesser government the better Domestic Policy Supported National Bank—BUS Supported excise tax National debt good for country National govt. assume state debts Tariffs should be high Against National Bank—BUS Against excise tax Against National debt States pay their own debts Tariffs should be low Foreign Policy Opposed French Revolution Wanted war with French Favored the British Supported French Revolution Opposed war with French Favored the French political

13 Began in 1790’s, unfair taxation and inequality---worldwide crisis Overthrow King Louis 16 th and Marie Antoniete similar to King George Americans believed we should help the French----similar to ours Began in 1790’s, unfair taxation and inequality---worldwide crisis Overthrow King Louis 16 th and Marie Antoniete similar to King George Americans believed we should help the French----similar to ours

14 France goes to war against European kings France requested US ships to block West Indies from the British President Washington declared Neutrality and ordered Americans to avoid this war France goes to war against European kings France requested US ships to block West Indies from the British President Washington declared Neutrality and ordered Americans to avoid this war Executions of King Louis the 16 th and Marie Antoniette in Begins “Reign of Terror” during French Revolution where 40,000 opponents of the new govt. were beheaded. Executions of King Louis the 16 th and Marie Antoniette in Begins “Reign of Terror” during French Revolution where 40,000 opponents of the new govt. were beheaded.

15 farewell Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain and the United Netherlands, of the one part and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the U.S. require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers.

16 farewell President Washington’s response to the French was to warn Americans to stay out these European conflicts and remain neutral or avoid.President Washington’s response to the French was to warn Americans to stay out these European conflicts and remain neutral or avoid. Why?Why? I have therefore thought fit by these presents to declare the disposition of the U.S. to observe the conduct aforesaid towards those Powers respectfully; and to exhort and warn the citizens of the U.S. carefully to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever, which may in any manner tend to contravene such disposition….April 1793

17 Most Americans (Jefferson and Paine) were upset with Washington’s Neutrality.Most Americans (Jefferson and Paine) were upset with Washington’s Neutrality. Washington’s Neutrality decision was based on the long term U.S. self interest.Washington’s Neutrality decision was based on the long term U.S. self interest. Preserve and protect the infant nationPreserve and protect the infant nation Thomas Paine On Washington’s Neutrality Thomas Paine On Washington’s Neutrality “And as to you, sir, treacherous in private friendship (for so you have been to me, and that in the day of danger) and a hypocrite in public life, the world will be puzzled to decide, whether you are an apostate or an importer; whether you have abandoned good principles, or whether you ever had any.”

18 British made neutrality difficult: maintained trading posts on US soil, sold firearms to Indians. Collaborated with Indians to check US expansion to frontier. Conflicts with Britain

19 President Washington faced several Indian problems. British were supplying the tribes with arms and ammunition to attack US settlers.British were supplying the tribes with arms and ammunition to attack US settlers. Washington sent General “Mad Anthony” Wayne to defeat the Indian tribes. President Washington faced several Indian problems. British were supplying the tribes with arms and ammunition to attack US settlers.British were supplying the tribes with arms and ammunition to attack US settlers. Washington sent General “Mad Anthony” Wayne to defeat the Indian tribes.

20 War in the Old Northwest Territory Several tribes, led by Little Turtle of the Miamis, scored early victories (1790–91) The Miamis were defeated at Fallen Timbers by General Mad Anthony Wayne (1794)

21 War in the Old Northwest Territory Treaty of Greenville (1795) gave USA right to settle most of Ohio First formal recognition of Indian sovereignty over land not ceded by treaty

22 Conflicts with Britain British expected Americans to defend French West Indies, so attacked US merchant ships, seizing about 300 –Impressed and imprisoned American sailors. Jeffersonians called for war Federalists resisted (financial system).

23  France began impressing our ships and sailors because of our Neutrality Proclamation.  France upset because we violated the Franco American Treaty of impressment Impressment An act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, men and forcing them into your navy

24 To avoid war, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London (1794). Jeffersonian’s concerned about Jay’s loyalty. Hamilton feared war with England, secretly supplied British with US bargaining strategy. Jay’s Treaty

25 British remove forts from US soil Allowed US to negotiate separate treaties with Indian tribes Opened westward expansion for US settlers. John Jay is burnt in effigy because Americans believed he sold out to the British.

26 Jay’s Treaty British agree to pay some damages, but required US to pay old debts on pre- Revolution accounts. Jeffersonian’s felt treaty was surrender to Britain, betrayal of South (who had debts). Did not stop impressment. John Jay is burnt in effigy because Americans believed he sold out to the British.

27 Jay’s Treaty Jay’s Treaty gave life to new Democratic- Republican party, tarnished Wash.’s popularity. Spain, fearing US-British alliance, gives US free use of Mississippi, disputed territory north of FL.

28 Picnkneys Pinckney’s Treaty: Spain gave US the free use of the Mississippi River for 5 yrs. and the boundary was set at 31 st parallel between Spanish Florida and US…… Spain cut off our farmers right to use the Mississippi River and deposit their crops in New Orleans.

29 Washington warned of the dangers of political parties and permanent alliances with other nations.Washington warned of the dangers of political parties and permanent alliances with other nations. Washington’s warning against “entangling alliances” became a principle of U.S. foreign policy.Washington’s warning against “entangling alliances” became a principle of U.S. foreign policy. “Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation….Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course…..It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world……Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies”… farewell

30 --- ”GOOD HISTORIAN”  Washington is convinced that Americans must stay neutral and avoid foreign affairs associated with all the British and foreign continents--- ”GOOD HISTORIAN” Proclamation of NeutralityFarewell Address  Washington displayed this in 1793 by the Proclamation of Neutrality and his Farewell Address in  No entangling alliances…….  No entangling alliances…….US should avoid military alliances with Europe…….continue to trade with Europe  Neutrality = Isolation

31 Adams Becomes President 1796 campaign Adams was supported by New England and Federalists –Defeated Jefferson in Electoral College –Jefferson becomes VP France and US close to war. –Jay’s Treaty –US not honoring the Franco- American Treaty of campaign Adams was supported by New England and Federalists –Defeated Jefferson in Electoral College –Jefferson becomes VP France and US close to war. –Jay’s Treaty –US not honoring the Franco- American Treaty of 1778

32 Fighting with France French upset by US violation of France-US treaty of 1778 Upset with Jay’s Treaty toward alliance with England French warships impressed over 300 US merchant ships by 1797 French upset by US violation of France-US treaty of 1778 Upset with Jay’s Treaty toward alliance with England French warships impressed over 300 US merchant ships by 1797

33 Fighting with France : In undeclared hostilities, mostly around West Indies US captured over 80 French ships but lost several hundred to France. Needed only slight push for war : In undeclared hostilities, mostly around West Indies US captured over 80 French ships but lost several hundred to France. Needed only slight push for war.

34 To avoid war with France, President Adams sent 3 US representatives (John Marshall, Charles Pinckney and John Jay) to negotiate a peace agreement….. US representatives were snubbed by the French government…… Eventually, 3 French representatives (known as X, Y and Z because they refused to give their names) XYZ demanded a bribe of $250,000 to merely talk with Tallyrand Insulted, we refused the demands and left France… US & French begin to fight an undeclared naval war. President Adams on the XYX Affair….”I will never send another minister to France without assurances that he will be received, respected, and honored as the representative of a great, free, powerful and independent nation.” AdamsTallyrand

35 XYZ Affair French demanded an apology Demanded a $12 million loan. XYZ Affair French demanded an apology Demanded a $12 million loan.

36 “The French government would permit us to remain at Paris and we should be received by Talleyrand one of us could go to American and consult our government on the subject of the loan. We had no reason to believe that a possible benefit could result from it. And we desired him to tell his government that we would not give a shilling unless American property unjustly captured was previously restored and further hostilities suspended… Unless this was done, we did not think that we could even consult our government concerning a loan…..” “The French government would permit us to remain at Paris and we should be received by Talleyrand one of us could go to American and consult our government on the subject of the loan. We had no reason to believe that a possible benefit could result from it. And we desired him to tell his government that we would not give a shilling unless American property unjustly captured was previously restored and further hostilities suspended… Unless this was done, we did not think that we could even consult our government concerning a loan…..”

37 Fighting with France Americans wanted war and were heard to say “millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” US prepares for war, creates navy, re-establishes the US Marine Corps. Americans wanted war and were heard to say “millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” US prepares for war, creates navy, re-establishes the US Marine Corps.

38 Patriotism Above Party Hamilton and the war-hawk Federalists enraged, but most Americans agreeable to try for peace 1800: new US envoys come to find Napoleon as new dictator –Wants to resolve US conflict

39 Patriotism Above Party New French leader, Napoleon and Talleyrand did not want war, or to push the US to Britain French send back-channel message that new US minister would be received properly 1799: Adams submits to Senate new minister to France New French leader, Napoleon and Talleyrand did not want war, or to push the US to Britain French send back-channel message that new US minister would be received properly 1799: Adams submits to Senate new minister to France

40 NapoleonTallyrandTo prevent a war with France, in 1800, President Adams sent representatives to France to meet with Napoleon and Tallyrand to negotiate a peace agreement….. Tallyrand guarantees France would accept our representatives and treat them with respect. The agreement was as follows: Adams Napoleon

41 Convention of 1800 signed: – ended Franco-American alliance Adams deserves credit: –Avoided war –Unknowingly laid foundation for LA Purchase Adams sacrificed his re-election in 1800 to keep US out of war –Patriotism above self-interest Adams Napoleon

42 Federalist Witch Hunt 1798: Using anti-French hysteria, Federalists in Congress passed the Alien & Sedition Acts Alien Laws: raised residency required for citizenship to 14 years (from 5), resulting in fewer Democratic-Republican voters

43 Federalist Witch Hunt Sedition Act violated Constitution, but Federalist SC would not overturn Law wrote to expire in 1801 in case Federalists lost election Despite violation of freedoms, Acts were very popular

44 “That if any person shall write, print, utter, or publish, or shall cause or procure to be written, printed, uttered or published, or shall knowingly and willingly assist in any false, Scandalous and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States, or either house of Congress or the President of the United States, Then such person, being thereof convicted before any court of the United States, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars and by imprisonment not exceeding two years……”

45 ISSUE : ISSUE : Does the United States Govt have the right to suspend your rights (Bill of Rights) in time of crisis (such as war) to protect the national security of the country? ALIEN ACT : ALIEN ACT : Congress gave President Adams the power to deport any immigrant who was considered a risk to national security….Also, changed naturalization (immigrants who want to become citizens) from 5 years to 14 yrs… SEDITION ACT: SEDITION ACT: Congress gave President Adams special powers to arrest anyone who spoke out against the war effort….Primarily against Jefferson’s Democratic/Republicans and newspaper editors who opposed the war…..

46 DOCTRINE OF NULLIFICATION : cancel or decide not to obey a law they believed was unconstitutional DOCTRINE OF NULLIFICATION : Since the States created the National Government, they have the right to nullify, cancel or decide not to obey a law they believed was unconstitutional …. COMPACT THEORY: COMPACT THEORY: Belief Jefferson and Madison held that since the states created the National Govt. and the states entered into this compact voluntarily, they have the right to refuse to obey any law they believe is unconstitutional… Kty/va resolutions Jefferson’s and Madison’s response to the Sedition Act…..They tried to convince the other states not to support the Sedition Act….It failed and the Sedition Act remained the law until 1801.

47 FEDERALISTS 1)Alexander Hamilton/John Adams 2)Led by merchants, bankers and lawyers living primarily in New England. 3)Favored a strong central government. 4)Interpreted the Constitution loosely--- ”implied powers” 5)Believed in a government by the elite, educated and wealthy. 6)Pro-England. 7)Favored Hamilton's financial policies----support BUS 8)Vision for US: Trade center, industry and self-sufficient. DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS 1)Thomas Jefferson/James Madison. 2)Led by planters, farmers and wage earners living primarily in the South and West. 3)Favored strong state governments over national government. 4)Interpreted the Constitution strictly--- “enumerated powers” 5)Rule by the educated masses. 6)Pro-France. 7)Opposed Hamilton's financial policies---against BUS 8)Vision for US: Agricultural society, little trade and industry politicalparties

48 Chapter 10 In Review…..

49 notes1 1.Washington’s Presidency  Served 2 terms to 1797  VP: John Adams 2. US Problems = Solutions  Government on paper but not in practice  Precedents  Develops first  Cabinet----Hamilton vs Jefferson  Supreme Court  Debt  Excise taxes and tariffs  Bank of United States (BUS) in 1792  Confidence in new Constitution  Whiskey Rebellion  Successfully put down by Washington, 1794 Farmers refuse to pay Whiskey tax to US Govt. “Mobocracy”

50 3. Accomplishments  Political achievements  Supreme Court---Judiciary Act of 1789  treaties Created lowers courts to assist the Supreme Court

51  Domestic Achievements:  Secures westward expansion  Jay’s Treaty— Great Britain  Picnkney’s Treaty— Spain  Debt solutions  Excise taxes and tariffs  Bank of United States (BUS)  Enforced Constitution  Whiskey Rebellion  Demonstrated strength of new government  Foreign Achievements  No war with Great Britain or Spain  French Revolution to US response  Neutrality Act---Washington warns = stay out  Cornerstone of US foreign policy = isolationism  Washington’s Farewell Speech  Two ways the US can stay unified and strong  Avoid political parties  military alliances with European countries Farmers refuse to pay Whiskey tax to US Govt. “Mobocracy”

52 4.Election of 1796 Rise of Political parties Adams 2 nd president---Jefferson VP Serves 1 term to Foreign relations----possible war with France—Why? US neutrality, treaty of 1778 and Jay’s Treaty US upset----”impressment” of our ships Adams negotiates with France to keep US out of war XYZ Affair US apologize Loan France money $250,0000 bribe Americans demand war with France Undeclared naval war---US vs France President Adams prepares US for war…. Alien and Sedition Act—1798 Congress creates the Dept. of the Navy and US Marines Federalist Democratic Republican

53 7. VP Jefferson & Madison against these laws..”Responses” Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions if US law violates the Constitution, the states can refuse to obey it….”nullification” Why? Compact theory: States created national government and have the right to nullify any law they believe is unconstitutional State’s rights vs national govt. conflict 8. Adams vs. Napoleon Bonaparte to keep US out of war Treaty agreement Abandon treaty of 1778 US drop the claims against France Adam’s accomplishment: Kept US “neutral” and out of war Sacrifices his presidency and will not be re-elected Why? Went against people and Federalists


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