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African American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant.

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Presentation on theme: "African American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant."— Presentation transcript:

1 African American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant

2 WOMEN LEADERS…

3 African-American Female Leadership There were lots of women who took active roles during this era Did not sit around waiting for men to take care of the situation

4 Turn-Of-The-Century Women Many were educated Worked as teachers, journalists

5 Why Are the Accomplishments of Women Overlooked? Sexism of the era Black women faced the “double burden” of racism and sexism Face many unique issues HOWEVER, they continue to fight for their rights

6 Ida B. Wells

7

8 Ida B. Wells Background Daughter of slaves Parents emphasized education Trained as a journalist Worked as a teacher

9 Ida B. Wells and the Civil Rights Movement Got involved after being forcibly removed from a train after refusing to sit in the African American car Sued

10 Wells’ Activism Worked as a journalist Used pseudonym of “Iola” Discussed conditions of blacks in America

11 Wells’ Biggest Focus during the 1890s

12 Campaign Against Lynching

13 Lynching Wells’ biggest campaign is against lynching Gets involved after a friend of hers is murdered

14 What happened to Southern Blacks Who Challenged the System?

15 Lynching

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17 Lynching of African Americans was an all too common occurrence.

18 Lynching Common Popular for people to go to with their families Nothing was done to the lynchers (townspeople pretended not to know about anything)

19 Lynching Justification by whites was that black men were trying to rape white women Problem with this: – Many relationships between black men and white women were consensual – Many of the people who were lynched were never accused of sex crimes – What happened if a black woman was raped?

20 Wells and Lynching Wells was so upset about the murder of her friend that she travelled through the South investigating lynchings Published her findings Whites were angry and Wells and threatened her safety

21 National Association of Colored Women

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23 Founders: Ida B Wells and Harriet Tubman

24 Founders: Frances E.W. Harper and Josephine St. Pierre

25 Founders: Margaret Murray Washington and Mary Church Terrell

26 National Association of Colored Women “Lifting as we climb”

27 National Association of Colored Women Focus: – Job training – Wage equity – Childcare

28 National Association of Colored Women Want: – End to lynching – End to segregated transportation – Improved prison conditions

29 National Association of Colored Women Support: – Women’s suffrage campaigns

30 National Association of Colored Women Influential organization By 1917, have over 300,000 members

31 Ida B. Wells Continues to push for a federal anti-lynching law Becomes one of the founders of the NAACP

32 Mary Church Terrell

33

34 Daughter of former slaves Attended Oberlin College – BA – MA – One of the first African-Americans to earn her BA

35 Mary Church Terrell Focus on women’s rights Very disappointed the suffrage movement often excluded African-Americans

36 Mary Church Terrell Focus on education First African-American woman ever appointed to a school board

37 National Association of College Women

38 Mary Church Terrell Worked as a journalist – Euphemia Kirk

39 Mary Church Terrell Founder of the NAACP – She and Wells were the only two women initially invited to join this movement

40 Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin

41 Raised in Boston Educated at private schools

42 Women’s Era

43 Ruffin serves as editor from

44 Women’s Era First newspaper published for and by African- American women Wanted black women to push for increased rights Highlighted the accomplishments of black women

45 National Federation of Afro-American Women "...we are women, American women, as intensely interested in all that pertains to us as such as all other American women; we are not alienating or withdrawing, we are only coming to the front, willing to join any others in the same work and welcoming any others to join us."

46 National Federation of Afro-American Women Later merged into the National Association of Colored Women

47 New Era Club Advocacy club for black women

48 “Ruffin Incident” 1900 General Federation of Women’s Clubs Refused to seat her because of the New Era’s Club all black membership “…colored women should confine themselves to their clubs and the large field of work open to them there."

49 TURN OF THE CENTURY BLACK LEADERS…

50 Booker T Washington

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52

53 Known as “the” turn-of-the-century black leader in America

54 Washington’s Background Mixed race: black mother, white father Born a slave After emancipation, worked in the coal mines

55 Washington EDUCATION * Always placed a high value on education * Woke up at 4 am to teach himself how to read and write

56 Hampton Institute

57 Washington attended the Hampton Institute Worked as a janitor to pay his tuition Shapes his perspective towards education

58 Tuskegee Institute

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60

61 Founded 1881 Alabama Initially had no buildings, land, etc. Washington was supposed to build the university from the ground up

62 Tuskegee Institute Fast growth 1888 – 540 acres – 400 students enrolled 1906 – 2000 acres – 1500 students enrolled

63 Tuskegee Institute Focused on industrial education

64 Industrial Education Focused on practical skills Washington believed that this was a way to get blacks out of debt Wanted blacks to have: – Self-employment – Land ownership – Small business ownership

65 Whites and Tuskegee Whites primarily funded Tuskegee. Why? Northern Whites – Liked that Washington promoted the Protestant work ethic Southern Whites – Liked that Washington expressed that his school would do nothing to challenge white social supremacy or white economic interests

66 Blacks Reaction to Washington’s Stance Seen as very controversial

67 Washington and Race Relations Believed racial subordination was a necessary evil Felt like blacks needed to prove themselves to achieve equality

68 Cotton States and Industrial Expo

69 When Washington really rose to national prominence

70 Atlanta Compromise Speech To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted, I would repeat what I have said to my own race: “Cast down your bucket where you are.” Cast it down among the eight millions of Negroes whose habits you know, whose fidelity and love you have tested in days when to have proved treacherous meant the ruin of your fireside. Cast down your bucket among these people who have without strikes and labor wars tilled your fields, cleared your forests, builded your railroads and cities, brought forth treasures from the bowels of the earth, just to make possible this magnificent representation of the progress of the South.

71 Atlanta Compromise Speech Whites- loved it Washington did not seem like a threat to them

72 Washington “The” black leader in America

73 “Up From Slavery”

74 Washington’s autobiography Seen by whites as being non-confrontational

75 Teddy Roosevelt and William Howard Taft

76 Washington Served As A Presidential Advisor Washington had access to the White House First time an African-American had served as an advisor (even unofficially) to the President Liked him because he seemingly accepted the principles of racial subordination Allowed him to recommend candidates for minor political posts

77 Black Intellectuals and Washington Generally do not support him

78 Working Class Blacks and Washington Seen as a hero

79 Washington In Private Quietly works behind the scenes to challenge Jim Crow Funds lawsuits Wrote letters against segregation Worked to protect blacks from lynch mobs

80 Washington’s Legacy Mixed Questions about how much of his public persona was just an act

81 W.E.B. Du Bois

82 The other most influential black leader in turn-of-the-century America

83 W.E.B. Du Bois Mulatto Raised in Boston Went to Fisk College Received a Ph.D. from Harvard

84 Atlanta University

85 The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study

86 “Talented Tenth” Belief that the top ten percent of African- Americans would lead the race Believed they could achieve this by: – Continuing their education – Writing books – Becoming involved in social change

87 “Talented Tenth” "The Negro race, like all races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men. The problem of education, then, among Negroes must first of all deal with the Talented Tenth; it is the problem of developing the Best of this race that they may guide the Mass away from the contamination and death of the Worst.”

88 Du Bois’ Views on Education Believed in the importance of a classical education Believed that this was the only way that African-Americans could distinguish themselves as leaders

89 Du Bois and Washington

90 The Souls of Black Folk

91 “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others” Very critical of Washington – Accomodationist policies – Atlanta Compromise Speech – Seeming acceptance of segregation for economic gains – Did not like Washington’s emphasis on industrial education

92 The Souls of Black Folk “Double Consciousness” Referred to being Black and American

93 William Monroe Trotter

94 The Niagara Movement

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96 Founded by Du Bois and Trotter Meant to combat the power of Washington

97 The Niagara Movement “We want full manhood suffrage and we want it now.... We are men! We want to be treated as men. And we shall win."

98 The Niagara Movement Precursor to the NAACP

99 Du Bois and the American Historical Association First African-American invited to speak at the AHA Discussed “Black Reconstruction” – Went against the mainstream historical view – Touted accomplishments blacks made during Reconstruction

100 Du Bois

101 The Crisis

102 Du Bois One of the founders of the NAACP Very active in this organization Editor of The Crisis

103 William Monroe Trotter

104 From Boston Got BA and MA from Harvard

105 Trotter and the Civil Rights Movement Saw segregation was getting worse in the north and wanted to combat it Believed Washington’s accomodationist policies did not work

106 Boston Guardian

107 Weekly newspaper Trotter- editor Spoke out against Washington

108 Washington vs. Trotter Washington tried to silence Trotter’s criticisms of him Sued Trotter for libel Had people spy on Trotter for him

109 Trotter and Du Bois Establish the Niagara Movement

110 Niagara Movement

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113 1905 Du Bois and Trotter call a meeting of 59 African-Americans Goal was to form an organization that would offer an alternative to Washington

114 Niagara Movement "We claim for ourselves every single right that belongs to a freeborn American, political, civil and social; and until we get these rights we will never cease to protest and assail the ears of America. The battle we wage is not for ourselves alone but for all true Americans. It is a fight for ideals, lest this, our common fatherland, false to its founding, become in truth the land of the thief and the home of the slave -- a byword and a hissing among the nations for its sounding pretensions and pitiful accomplishment."

115 Niagara Movement Had over 30 branches Never enough funding Weak organizationally – Mainly due to conflicts between Du Bois and Trotter

116 Washington and the Niagara Movement Spoke out against it in the black press

117 Niagara Movement Disbands after the founding of the NAACP


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