Lynching of African Americans was an all too common occurrence.
Lynching Common Popular for people to go to with their families Nothing was done to the lynchers (townspeople pretended not to know about anything)
Lynching Justification by whites was that black men were trying to rape white women Problem with this: – Many relationships between black men and white women were consensual – Many of the people who were lynched were never accused of sex crimes – What happened if a black woman was raped?
Wells and Lynching Wells was so upset about the murder of her friend that she travelled through the South investigating lynchings Published her findings Whites were angry and Wells and threatened her safety
Women’s Era First newspaper published for and by African- American women Wanted black women to push for increased rights Highlighted the accomplishments of black women
National Federation of Afro-American Women "...we are women, American women, as intensely interested in all that pertains to us as such as all other American women; we are not alienating or withdrawing, we are only coming to the front, willing to join any others in the same work and welcoming any others to join us."
National Federation of Afro-American Women Later merged into the National Association of Colored Women
“Ruffin Incident” 1900 General Federation of Women’s Clubs Refused to seat her because of the New Era’s Club all black membership “…colored women should confine themselves to their clubs and the large field of work open to them there."
Founded 1881 Alabama Initially had no buildings, land, etc. Washington was supposed to build the university from the ground up
Tuskegee Institute Fast growth 1888 – 540 acres – 400 students enrolled 1906 – 2000 acres – 1500 students enrolled
Tuskegee Institute Focused on industrial education
Industrial Education Focused on practical skills Washington believed that this was a way to get blacks out of debt Wanted blacks to have: – Self-employment – Land ownership – Small business ownership
Whites and Tuskegee Whites primarily funded Tuskegee. Why? Northern Whites – Liked that Washington promoted the Protestant work ethic Southern Whites – Liked that Washington expressed that his school would do nothing to challenge white social supremacy or white economic interests
Blacks Reaction to Washington’s Stance Seen as very controversial
Washington and Race Relations Believed racial subordination was a necessary evil Felt like blacks needed to prove themselves to achieve equality
When Washington really rose to national prominence
Atlanta Compromise Speech To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted, I would repeat what I have said to my own race: “Cast down your bucket where you are.” Cast it down among the eight millions of Negroes whose habits you know, whose fidelity and love you have tested in days when to have proved treacherous meant the ruin of your fireside. Cast down your bucket among these people who have without strikes and labor wars tilled your fields, cleared your forests, builded your railroads and cities, brought forth treasures from the bowels of the earth, just to make possible this magnificent representation of the progress of the South.
Atlanta Compromise Speech Whites- loved it Washington did not seem like a threat to them
Washington 1895-1915 “The” black leader in America
Washington Served As A Presidential Advisor Washington had access to the White House First time an African-American had served as an advisor (even unofficially) to the President Liked him because he seemingly accepted the principles of racial subordination Allowed him to recommend candidates for minor political posts
Black Intellectuals and Washington Generally do not support him
Working Class Blacks and Washington Seen as a hero
Washington In Private Quietly works behind the scenes to challenge Jim Crow Funds lawsuits Wrote letters against segregation Worked to protect blacks from lynch mobs
Washington’s Legacy Mixed Questions about how much of his public persona was just an act
“Talented Tenth” Belief that the top ten percent of African- Americans would lead the race Believed they could achieve this by: – Continuing their education – Writing books – Becoming involved in social change
“Talented Tenth” "The Negro race, like all races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men. The problem of education, then, among Negroes must first of all deal with the Talented Tenth; it is the problem of developing the Best of this race that they may guide the Mass away from the contamination and death of the Worst.”
Du Bois’ Views on Education Believed in the importance of a classical education Believed that this was the only way that African-Americans could distinguish themselves as leaders
“Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others” Very critical of Washington – Accomodationist policies – Atlanta Compromise Speech – Seeming acceptance of segregation for economic gains – Did not like Washington’s emphasis on industrial education
The Souls of Black Folk “Double Consciousness” Referred to being Black and American
Du Bois and the American Historical Association First African-American invited to speak at the AHA Discussed “Black Reconstruction” – Went against the mainstream historical view – Touted accomplishments blacks made during Reconstruction
1905 Du Bois and Trotter call a meeting of 59 African-Americans Goal was to form an organization that would offer an alternative to Washington
Niagara Movement "We claim for ourselves every single right that belongs to a freeborn American, political, civil and social; and until we get these rights we will never cease to protest and assail the ears of America. The battle we wage is not for ourselves alone but for all true Americans. It is a fight for ideals, lest this, our common fatherland, false to its founding, become in truth the land of the thief and the home of the slave -- a byword and a hissing among the nations for its sounding pretensions and pitiful accomplishment."
Niagara Movement 1905-10 Had over 30 branches Never enough funding Weak organizationally – Mainly due to conflicts between Du Bois and Trotter
Washington and the Niagara Movement Spoke out against it in the black press
Niagara Movement Disbands after the founding of the NAACP