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Personality Disorders I (Chapter 12) April 14, 2014 PSYC 2340: Abnormal Psychology Brett Deacon, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Personality Disorders I (Chapter 12) April 14, 2014 PSYC 2340: Abnormal Psychology Brett Deacon, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personality Disorders I (Chapter 12) April 14, 2014 PSYC 2340: Abnormal Psychology Brett Deacon, Ph.D.

2 Announcements Exam #3 returned today Remaining schedule: Personality disorders – 2 classes No class this Friday (Easter break) 3 classes on psychotic disorders Exam #4 is coming up soon! April 28 th I will you your exam grade by 5 PM You have until Wednesday to let me know if you will be taking the final exam

3 Announcements Reminder of final exam grading policy Exams 1-4 all count Final exam is optional and cumulative Only four out of the scheduled five exams will count toward your final grade. Practically speaking, this means that the fifth exam is optional if you are satisfied with your grade after the first four exams.

4 Personality Nature of personality Characteristic ways of thinking and behaving Generally stable across situations Comprised of different traits Exist on continuum When is a trait “abnormal?”

5 Example Personality Traits Suspiciousness Sociability Empathy Completely Trusting Very Extraverted Overly Caring Paranoid/ Mistrusting Painfully Shy Not at all Caring

6 Personality and Abnormality A woman is careful to lock her car and house immediately after entering them because she fears intruders. Would you consider this behavior abnormal?

7 Personality and Abnormality A car salesman lies to people to manipulate them into buying a car, and feels no guilt about making an unethical sale. Would you consider this behavior abnormal?

8 Personality and Abnormality A woman does not socialize with other people. She communicates with people at her job, but outside of work she has no social contact with others, nor does she desire any. Would you consider this behavior abnormal?

9 Personality and Abnormality A man becomes upset when his wife rearranges his shirt drawer, does not have dinner ready on schedule, or in any way interferes with his rigidly planned work schedule. Would you consider this behavior abnormal?

10 Personality and Abnormality Personality characteristics are abnormal when: Inflexible and maladaptive Cause significant functional impairment, or Cause subjective distress

11 Personality and Abnormality Personality pervades every aspect of a person’s life It’s who you are Personality appears early in life, and is stable and chronic

12 Personality and Abnormality Personality disorders pervade every aspect of a person’s life It’s who you are Personality disorders appear early in life, and are stable and chronic

13 Personality and Abnormality Are personality disorders “problems” from which people “suffer,” like anxiety or depression? Can you change your personality? Can a personality disorder be “treated?” If a personality disorder can be overcome or successfully modified in therapy, does that mean it wasn’t a personality disorder after all?

14 Personality Disorders Coded on Axis II of DSM-IV Categorical (DSM-IV) vs. dimensional approach Problems with categorical approach Reliability and validity of “personality disorders” Personality science vs. DSM-defined personality disorders

15 Gender and Personality Disorders Robert is 10 years old. He attends school, but is often in trouble because he is inattentive or rebellious towards the teacher. He has friends in class, but frequently gets into physical fights with them and on one occasion hurt a classmate. He teases his younger brother at home, and prefers to be outside playing baseball with friends rather than completing homework or chores. Is Robert’s behavior abnormal?

16 Gender and Personality Disorders Karen is a 35-year-old single woman. She is depressed because she wants to have children but has not found a suitable partner. Karen has recently quit her job and spends most of her time talking with friends on the telephone. She has no immediate plans to return to work, and will look to her family to provide for her during this difficult time. Is Karen’s behavior abnormal?

17 Gender and Personality Disorders Lisa is 10 years old. She attends school, but is often in trouble because she is inattentive or rebellious towards the teacher. She has friends in class, but frequently gets into physical fights with them and on one occasion hurt a classmate. She teases her younger brother at home, and prefers to be outside playing baseball with friends rather than completing homework or chores. Is Lisa’s behavior abnormal?

18 Gender and Personality Disorders Mark is a 35-year-old single man. He is depressed because he wants to have children but has not found a suitable partner. Mark has recently quit his job and spends most of his time talking with friends on the telephone. He has no immediate plans to return to work, and will look to his family to provide for him during this difficult time. Is Mark’s behavior abnormal?

19 Gender and Personality Disorders Gender bias and the stereotypical female Antisocial Personality Disorder – irresponsible and reckless behavior, lack of empathy Histrionic Personality Disorder – sexually seductive behavior, emotionally labile, overemphasis on physical appearance, dramatic emotional expression, easily influenced by others, thinks relationships are more intimate than they really are Criterion gender bias (Ford & Widiger, 1989): gender dramatically effects which personality disorder is diagnosed

20 Personality Disorder Clusters Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric Paranoid Schizoid Schizotypal

21 Personality Disorder Clusters Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, Erratic Antisocial Borderline Histrionic Narcissistic

22 Personality Disorder Clusters Cluster C: Anxious, Fearful Avoidant Dependent Obsessive-Compulsive

23 Personality Disorders and the DSM How do disorders make it into the DSM? A case study in the evolution of diagnoses: Axis II (personality) disorders throughout the 5 editions of the DSM What follows is a list of personality disorders in each DSM edition that were subsequently eliminated from the DSM Diagnoses disappear (and reappear) at a much higher rate in the personality disorder section than elsewhere in the DSM

24 Personality Disorders and the DSM DSM-I (1952) Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder Inadequate Personality Disorder Cyclothymic Personality Disorder Alternating periods of depression and elation not attributable to external factors

25 Personality Disorders and the DSM

26 Defunct Personality Disorders from Previous Versions of the DSM DSM-II (1968) Explosive Personality Disorder outbursts of rage atypical of the individual’s normal personality Asthenic Personality Disorder being easily fatigued, having low energy, an inability to enjoy life, and oversensitivity to stress

27 Defunct Personality Disorders from Previous Versions of the DSM DSM-III (1980) Affective Personality Disorder DSM-III-R (1987) Personality Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: Immature Personality Disorder Sadistic Personality Disorder Self-Defeating Personality Disorder

28 Personality Disorders and the DSM Personality disorders currently “under study in DSM-IV: Depressive Personality Disorder Negativistic Personality Disorder

29 Personality Disorders and the DSM What can we learn from the evolution of personality disorder diagnoses in the DSM? What does it mean that so many disorders come and go with new editions of the DSM? Personality disorders in DSM-5? Massive overhaul of entire section originally planned Final version of DSM-5: no changes whatsoever


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