Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO FOOD SAFETY If you have any questions, please call (928) 402-8811."— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION TO FOOD SAFETY If you have any questions, please call (928) 402-8811.
Abbreviations used in this presentation Abd – Abdominal FBI – Foodborne Illness N/V – Nausea and Vomiting S/S – Signs and Symptoms
What is Foodborne Illness (FBI)? Any illness caused by food. May be caused by microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites), chemicals, or physical hazards. Many times, your “upset” stomach is really caused by FBI.
Who is most at risk? Children Their immune systems aren’t fully developed yet. Elderly, seniors Their immune systems aren’t as robust due to aging and often have other diseases (like heart disease, diabetes) that further weaken the immune system. Pregnant women Both the woman and fetus are at risk. Individuals with compromised immune systems (like those with cancer, HIV, recent illnesses like the flu)
Common Causes of FBI Sick food worker/food handler Poor personal hygiene/bare hand contact Improper holding temperatures Improper cooling Inadequate cooking and reheating Cross-contamination Use of food from unknown sources
Sources of Food Contamination Air Water Soil Food workers/handlers Packaging materials Pests Food preparation surfaces Individual ingredients (one thing is contaminated, so it’s all contaminated)
Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF) Foods that provide suitable conditions for rapid growth of microorganisms. Include foods high in protein (like meats, poultry, fish, milk products), plant proteins (soy, tofu), starches (cooked rice, cooked beans), cooked veggies (potatoes), leafy greens, cut tomatoes, raw sprouts, garlic in oil. Exceptions: Low water content, high acidity (pH 4.6 or below), air cooked, hard boiled eggs with shells.
Storing of PHF Must be kept hot (at least 135°F) or cold (below 41°F) Best way to determine if PHF is kept at the right temperature is to measure it with a thermometer.
Thermometer Method Sanitize the probe using alcohol wipes, or in a chemical sanitizing solution of 50PPM for at least one minute, or swabbing with a chorine sanitizing solution of 100PPM. Measure the internal product temperature by inserting the probe into the thickest part or center of the product. Take measurements at several points. Wait for roughly 15 seconds or until the reading is steady to read it. Clean and sanitize the thermometer for later use.
Danger Zone! The temperatures at which microorganisms grow the best. 41°F - 140°F. Our 2013 Food Code, requires keeping hot foods at 135°F.
Ready-to-Eat Foods Foods that do not need additional cooking or washing. Extra care must be taken to ensure safety of these foods! Wear latex-free gloves when handling ready-to- eat foods or use utensils to handle those foods.
Hazards Biological Hazards Microorganisms (bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites) Most common causes of food illnesses Chemical Hazards May be naturally occurring (think poisonous fish), pesticides Physical Hazards Bone fragments, pieces of glass, jewelry, band-aids
Acute FBI Causes Infection Biological hazards are consumed along with food Typically, signs/symptoms include nausea, abd pain, fever, diarrhea Intoxication Food that contains toxic chemical Include the consumption of poisonous plants, fish, or food that is tainted with pesticides Toxin-Mediated Infection Consumption of food that produces toxins once inside of the human body
Bacteria Many times doesn’t alter how something looks, smells, or tastes. Potentially Hazardous Foods Foods of animal origin Foods of plant origin, consisting of raw seed sprouts Garlic and oil mixtures that aren’t modified
Escherichia coli - bacteria Infection and toxin-mediated infection Commonly found in intestines of warm-blooded animals May be found in other foods that have been contaminated with infected fecal matter May also spread through food handlers and food prep practices Flu-like symptoms, abd pain, N/V, watery and/or bloody diarrhea May develop into HUS (Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome) Red blood cells are destroyed, leads to kidney failure especially in children, and death if not treated
Listeria Monocytogenes - Bacteria Primarily affects the most at-risk people Fever, muscle aches, gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, cramping) Spreads to the nervous system (headaches, stiff neck, confusion, lack of coordination, seizures) May lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, preterm labor, stillbirth) Found in soil, water Is killed by pasteurization and cooking, but if something is pre-cooked, it may be contaminated after cooking Can grow at refrigerated temperatures!
Salmonella - Bacteria Lives in the intestinal tracts of birds, humans Typically contaminated animal source foods, cross- contamination Fever, abd cramping, diarrhea At-risk people are at risk for other complications because they are more easily able to get other infections in addition to salmonella
Staphylococcus Aureus - Bacteria N/V, abd pain, extreme fatigue Humans and animals are primarily where it’s found Spread though droplets of saliva, coughing, sneezing Food handlers contamination – need to wash hands! Temperature Abuse – kept in the danger zone too long!
Spore-Forming Bacteria Rod-shaped bacteria that form spores. Spores – inactive forms of bacteria that’s able to survive harsh conditions for long time periods Commonly found in soil Can survive for several months When conditions are favorable again, the spores will sprout and bacteria will grow Commonly found in spices, vegetables Not unusual for animals to eat feed that has been contaminated with spores
Clostridium botulinium – Spore-Forming AKA – Botulism Associated mostly with home canned foods Inadequately cooked (didn’t get hot enough, long enough) Grows at room temperature Produces a neurotoxin…Deadly!! Fatigue, headache, dizziness, vision problems, difficulty breathing, which progress to paralysis of limbs, trunk, and respiratory muscles Can be destroyed if boiled for 20 minutes If you have any bloated cans, do not use!
Viruses Hepatitis A Causes liver disease Can be symptom free for up to six weeks, contagious for one week before symptoms show and two weeks after symptoms show Food handling – again, washing hands is so important! Jaundice, fatigue, abd pain, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, fever
Norovirus AKA – Stomach Flu, Stomach Bug, Gastroenteritis N/V, diarrhea, abd cramping, sometimes fever, chills, headache, fatigue Contagious from time of symptoms to at least three days after recovery (even up to two weeks) Very easy to spread, especially in food establishments.
Chemical Contamination MSG, pesticide residue, mercury Vomiting is the most common symptom Not very common
Prevention of FBI Proper temperature handling and cooking is key! Personal hygiene Wash hands after using the restroom, between different working tasks, stay home if you are sick and notify your supervisor Avoiding cross-contamination Properly sanitize food prep surfaces, store raw meats below other foods like veggies
Questions? Please call Gila County Division of Health & Emergency Services at (928) 402-8811 and ask for the Environmental Health Department.