Presentation on theme: "J UNIOR H IGH H ISTORY Chapter 15. C HAPTER 15 S ECTION 1 1. In 1819 how many states in the Union permitted slavery, and how many did not? Eleven did,"— Presentation transcript:
J UNIOR H IGH H ISTORY Chapter 15
C HAPTER 15 S ECTION 1 1. In 1819 how many states in the Union permitted slavery, and how many did not? Eleven did, and eleven did not. 2. Why was the admission of Missouri a problem to the Senate? The balance of free/slave states would be upset 3. What attitude grew out of the differences between the North and the South? sectionalism—an exaggerated loyalty to a particular region of the country
4. What did Henry Clay suggest Congress should do to solve the Missouri question? admit Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state 5. What was Clay’s proposal called? The Missouri Compromise 6. In the 1840s which territories renewed the dispute over the issue of slavery? Texas New Mexico California 7. What was the main issue in the presidential election of 1844? The annexation of Texas
8. What proposal specified that slavery should be prohibited in any lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War? Wilmost Proviso 9. Who proposed that neither Congress nor a territorial government had the authority to ban slavery? John C. Calhoun 10. What new party was formed in 1848 when neither presidential candidate would take a stand on slavery? Free-Soil Party
11. Why did the possibility of California, New Mexico, Oregon, and Utah becoming states cause tension in the Senate? These states would probably enter as free states, which would upset the balance of power in the Senate between free and slave states in favor of free states. 12. What law that Southerners favored was part of Henry Clay’s five-part plan to settle the issues dividing Congress? Fugitive Slave Act
13. Who opened the debate in Congress over Clay’s proposal? Senators : Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster 14. How long did the debate last? Seven months 15. Which young senator from Illinois finally resolved the crisis? Stephen Douglas 16. What name was given to the laws passed in Congress that contained the five main points of Clay’s original plan? Compromise of 1850
C HAPTER 15 S ECTION 2 I. The Fugitive Slave Act A. What did the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 require? All citizens to help catch runaways B. What did free African Americans and whites who opposed slavery set up to help runaways escape? Underground Railroad C. Biography Who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin ? Harriet Beecher Stowe D. Biography What did Uncle Tom’s Cabin show about slavery? That it was a brutal, and cruel system
II. T HE K ANSAS -N EBRASKA A CT A. Why did Stephen Douglas propose organizing the region west of Missouri and Iowa as the territories of Kansas and Nebraska? To encourage settlement in the West and open the way for the transcontinental railroad B. What led Douglas to propose abandoning the Missouri Compromise? He knew that Southerners would object to having Kansas and Nebraska admitted as free states C. What did Douglas call letting settlers in a territory vote on whether to allow slavery? Popular sovereignty D. When did Congress pass the Kansas-Nebraska Act? May 1854
III. C ONFLICT IN K ANSAS A. What happened in Kansas in the elections of 1855? A proslavery legislature was elected B. Who were the border ruffians? thousands of armed proslavery supporters from Missouri who crossed the border to vote in the Kansas election C. What did antislavery people do in response to the proslavery laws passed by the new Kansas legislature? They armed themselves, held their own elections, and adopted a constitution that banned slavery.
D. What conflicting positions did Congress take concerning the rival governments in Kansas? The president and Senate favored the proslavery government; the House backed the forces opposed to slavery. E. Who led an attack on Pottawatomie Creek to retaliate for the attack on Lawrence? John Brown F. What incident, along with the fighting in “Bleeding Kansas,” revealed the level of hostility between the North and the South? the Brooks-Sumner incident, in which Preston Brooks, a House representative, repeatedly struck Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts over the head with a cane
C HAPTER 15 S ECTION 3 1. Who joined forces to form the Republican Party in 1854? Anti-slavery Whigs Democrats Free-Soilers 2. What was the main message of Republican candidates in the elections of 1854? The government should ban slavery from the new territories 3. What did the results of the elections reveal about the Democratic Party? It was increasingly becoming a Southern Party
4. Whom did each party nominate in the presidential election of 1856? a) Republican: John C. Fremont b) Democratic: James Buchannan c) American: Mildred Fillmore 5. Who won the election? Buchannan 6. What African American sued for his freedom in 1846? Dred Scott
7. How did Chief Justice Roger B. Taney apply the Fifth Amendment in his ruling of the case? He said an enslaved person is property, and the Fifth Amendment prohibits Congress from taking away property without “due process of law.” 8. What did Republicans promise if they won the presidency in 1860? To change the Supreme Court and reverse the decision 9. Where was the Senate race that pitted Democrat Stephen A. Douglas against Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1858? Illinois 10. How did Douglas believe the issue of slavery could be resolved? Through popular sovereignty
11. Why was Lincoln opposed to slavery? He believe it was morally wrong 12. Eyewitness to History What was the main topic of the seven debates between Lincoln and Douglas? Slavery 13. Who said, “A house divided against itself cannot stand”? Lincoln 14. How did Lincoln gain support as a presidential candidate after losing to Douglas? He campaigned for other Republican candidates 15. When and where did abolitionist John Brown lead 18 men on a raid to seize a federal arsenal? October 16, 1859; Harpers Ferry, Virginia 16. What happened to Brown after the raid? He was captured, found guilty, and sentenced to hang
C HAPTER 15 S ECTION 4 I. The Election of 1860 A. At the Democratic convention in April 1860, Southern delegates insisted that the party promise to protect slavery. When Stephen A. Douglas and most Northern delegates refused, many Southern delegates walked out. B. At a second convention, party loyalists chose Douglas as their candidate and endorsed popular sovereignty. C. Southern Democrats chose Breckenridge as their candidate while the Republicans chose Lincoln.
II. T HE S OUTH S ECEDES A. On Dec. 20, 1860, South Carolina voted to secede. B. As other Southern states debated secession, Senator John Crittenden proposed a plan to protect slavery in territories south 36°30 N latitude. C. By February 1, 1861, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia had also seceded. D. The seceded states called themselves the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis as their president. E. Southerners justified secession with the theory of states’ rights. F. In his Inaugural Address Abraham Lincoln said that secession would not be permitted, vowing to hold federal property in the South and to enforce the nation’s laws.
III. F ORT S UMTER A. Confederate troops demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter, a United States fort on an island near Charleston Harbor. In response, Lincoln sent an unarmed expedition with much-needed supplies to the fort. B. Lincoln left the decision to start shooting up to the Confederacy. C. On April 12, 1861, Confederate guns opened fire on the fort. The Union garrison held out for 33 hours before surrendering. D. Following the attack, President Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 troops to fight to save the Union. Meanwhile Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas ; voted to join the Confederacy. The Civil War had begun.