Presentation on theme: "ENGLAND’S CIVIL WAR PERIOD FROM 1640 – 1688 YEARS OF CONFLICT BETWEEN THE STUART KINGS (successors of Elizabeth and the Tudors) and PARLIAMENT VERY IMPORTANT."— Presentation transcript:
ENGLAND’S CIVIL WAR PERIOD FROM 1640 – 1688 YEARS OF CONFLICT BETWEEN THE STUART KINGS (successors of Elizabeth and the Tudors) and PARLIAMENT VERY IMPORTANT RESULTS: Limited monarchy Constitutional rule Inherent rights for all citizens
THE STUARTS THEY’RE EASY TO REMEMBER: –James (I) –Charles (I) –Charles (II) –James (II) They were kings of Scotland, then of England too.
17 th Century England Assertion of Divine Right of Kings –Secular and Religious Power in the Monarchy –Disputes- Monarchy v. Parliament (1620s-1640) War, Taxes and Religion Puritans migrate to New World in large numbers –Demand for More Rights - Petition of Right Period of Religious Strife (1641-1650) –English Civil War Puritans v. Church of England –Oliver Cromwell v. King Charles I »Roundheads v. Cavaliers Age of Intolerance- Military Dictatorship –Oliver Cromwell- Military Dictator –Cavaliers migrate to Virginia in large numbers Restoration- –Protestantism v. Catholicism Part II –Demand for more Rights (Writ of Habeas Corpus) –Fear of Religion??? (power of Catholicism) Glorious Revolution –Power of Parliament v. King –English Bill of Rights
James (Stuart) I (England) 1603-1625 Son of Mary, Queen of Scots Protestant (Church of England) –Church of England was Very “Catholic” –Puritans protested “Catholic Rituals” Remember Puritans were similar in their beliefs to Calvinists Many had gone to Geneva and Holland during “Bloody Mary’s” time and were influenced by Calvin James chosen for the throne on the death of Elizabeth, who was childless Argued with Parliament - Hated to ask Parliament for Money for Wars (he felt above that type of thing) Major Accomplishments- King James Bible –Written in English, it is the dominant English language Bible to this day –Ulster Plantation – sends 20,000 Scots to colonize northern part of Ireland. End of Irish independence
King of Scotland as well as England - James I of England was also James VI of Scotland Edinburgh Castle
Charles I (Stuart) 1625- 1649 (Tried and Beheaded) Son of James I Saw himself as placed on earth by God to be King -Problems led to Parliament passing laws limiting the Kings rights -Parliament dominated by gentry, many of them Puritans -Dispute caused the English Civil War (1642-1649) -Charles Tried and Executed 1649- Family escaped to France
Charles and Parliament Fight! Charles fought Wars with Spain and France –Wars Cost the Government LOTS of money- (Iraq has cost the US over 500 Billion Dollars !!!!) How does Government pay for Wars!!!Taxes! Charles thought he was too BIG for Parliament but needed Parliament for $$$ (to authorize taxes) Parliament struck a deal with Charles- –They’d give him Money if he protected their rights Petition of Right Afterward Charles made sure Parliament didn’t meet for the next 11 years (1629-1640)
Petition of Right Ideas that later became part of the US Constitution The King May Not –Imprison people without due Cause (6 th Amend. US Const.) –No taxation without Representation (Decl. of Indep.) –No Quartering of Troops in Houses (3 rd Amend. US Const.) –No Martial Law in Peacetime (US Constitution)
William Laud- Archbishop Protestant Chosen by Charles I (1639) Liked Catholic Rituals and Dress Upset Scottish Presbyterians Persecuted English Puritans
Charles fought with Puritans and Presbyterians Puritans- Puritans sought to PURIfy the Church of England of anything that seemed Roman Catholic Charles alienated(upset) Puritans by picking William Laud (Archbishop) Upset Scots- Presbyterians- demanded they follow the Church of England’s rituals
English Civil War 1642-1649 Cromwell’s New Model Army (committed citizen- soldiers as opposed to noblemen and their vassals or mercenaries) v. King’s Forces Hundreds of Thousands Died Cromwell later alienated Parliament- –Military Control despite Parliament’s Protest Puritans were majority of Cromwell’s Army Nobles and Church Officials provided majority of Kings Army Charles I- Tried and Executed Cromwell Wins!
Cavaliers and Roundheads Cavaliers- King’s Forces Roundheads (due to their Haircuts (similar to Jim Carey in “dumb and dumber)
Thomas Hobbes Political Writer and Philosophe 1651 Wrote Leviathan (political book) –People are NASTY, BRUTISH AND GREEDY Therefore, Leaders need to be incredibly Powerful If two people, individually go out to hunt a deer, they are more likely to kill each other than work together to capture a deer –Hobbes saw people at their worst- He lived in a very bloody and murderous time (English Civil War) He saw little cooperation and lots of competition amongst people All Powerful Monarch Leviathan- Sea Monster
Oliver Cromwell Puritan Led the New Model Army Fought Charles I Disrespected Parliament Became Military Dictator- LORD PROTECTOR
Cromwell ran a strict ship Ran a Strict Govt. –Believed in Religious Liberty (people can choose their religion) Allowed Jews to return to England (thrown out in the 13 th Century) People could practice various religions. –Raised Taxes w/out Parliament –Disbanded Parliament, created his own government –Imprisoned people w/out Trial –Fought and defeated Irish Catholic backers of king in Ireland – massacred entire town of Drogheda, believed he was doing God’s work –Strict social laws in London (no dancing, theatre etc…) –His Son, Richard, took over the Throne on Oliver’s death
Richard Cromwell 1658 -Took over from his Father, Oliver Lord Protector Unable to effectively rule- Parliament forced him out (1660)
Charles II (1660-1685) and the Restoration - Interregnum (Between the Kings ) Charles I family had fled to Catholic France Charles II and his brother James were raised in France –They secretly agreed to become Catholic (deal with French King, Louis XIV (14) who was secretly giving him money) Parliament brought back Charles II and restored his family to the Throne- Restoration
Charles II as a Ruler Reasonable ruler, sought to give more religious liberty –Upset Parliament, that didn’t like Catholicism Arts flourished- Drama and Comedy, John Milton wrote Paradise Lost Law providing for Habeas Corpus (see US Constitution) Passed by Parliament –People could no longer be placed in Jail and not given a trial Charles dies w/out an heir (childless)- always a problem
James II (1685-1688) Brother of Charles II Supporters of James II called Tories Opponents of James II called Whigs Whigs and Tories combine to oust James II from power His first daughter, Mary, (Protestant) living in the Netherlands with her husband, William, is brought over to rule. (William and Mary, the school in Va. Is named for them.) (what American city was named for James II??? Hint: Before he was James II he was the Duke of __ ___ ___ ___). Because there was already a city with the same name in England this American city’s name begins with the word “New”)
A Catholic on the Throne is Dangerous! James was Catholic, but when made King his oldest child was Protestant Has another child (a son) while King- This Child is Catholic –Causes fear that Catholicism will be restored James appointed Catholics to high office- Upset Parliament Like Charles I he suspends Parliament from meeting-> Demands for James’ removal
GLORIOUS REVOLUTION 1688 Little bloodshed during the removal of James II –“GLORIOUS REVOLUTION” –Main bloodshed is in Ireland- where Irish Catholics are overwhelmingly defeated. William and Mary- will have less power than James II and his brother Charles II John Locke writes the English Bill of Rights. This places more limits on the power of the King and Queen Winners – Parliament and Protestantism Losers- Monarchy, Catholicism, Irish and James II
John Locke Political Writer and Philosophe Optimistic about Man and Society –In his life he experienced a revolution where few people died. –Society did not need an Absolute Monarch, the best government is a limited Government. Essays on Government (1690) –Government is subject to the People (Social Contract) –People have Natural Rights- Include Life and Liberty –Government should protect Life, Liberty and Property –Power of Government should be LIMITED –Revolution is justified if Government fails to properly Govern Wrote the English Bill of Rights (also called the Declaration of Rights)
English (Bill of Rights) 1688 Declaration of Rights King can’t suspend the laws of Parliament (see Declaration of Independence) Parliament had to meet frequently (US Constitution) Elections should be free and fair (US Constitution) Debates in parliament should be subject to freedom of speech (US Constitution, several places) No Taxes without approval of Parliament (see US Constitution) No Standing Army without approval of Parliament (See US Constitution) No excessive Bail (see US 8 th Amendment) (These and other laws provide the foundation for the US Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution)
CONNECTICUT CONNECTIONS! Connecticut colony and New Haven colony (where Darien was located) were Puritan colonies Three of the judges who ordered King Charles I’s execution hid out in this cave on a huge rock outcropping high above New Haven when monarchy was restored – Whalley, Dixwell and Goffe – today names of major streets in New Haven
MORE CONNECTICUT CONNECTIONS! The Charter Oak (state tree – many descendants) – it’s on our state quarter Connecticut obtained a charter from Charles II in 1662 that guaranteed self-government New governor appointed by James II attempted to snatch it Lights in State House suddenly went out and document disappeared It was hidden in large old oak tree in Hartford See Mr. Leete in ALP for further details – one of his ancestors was a former governor, who snatched the charter when the lights went out.
NEXT KINGS & QUEENS William and Mary Queen Anne (daughter) – no one left to take over Cousin, George of Hanover (in Germany)
THE GEORGES George I cannot speak or read English, never even goes there Parliament appoints a prime minister (Robert Walpole) and cabinet to handle day-to-day governing. Together with rights won in Civil War, this setup becomes the basis of Britain’s Constitutional Monarchy or Limited Monarchy
Tower of London- Where the Kings and Queens lived Today, the crown jewels are kept there
Globe Theatre (original burned down in the Great Fire of 1666) This is where Shakespeare’s plays were performed.
One of the most famous books in English History. Why man must endure such suffering and pain John Milton Paradise Lost