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Chinese Imperialism Foreign Coercion. Background Dynasty—Qing Dynasty—Qing Early 1800s European opinion of China was bad. Early 1800s European opinion.

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Presentation on theme: "Chinese Imperialism Foreign Coercion. Background Dynasty—Qing Dynasty—Qing Early 1800s European opinion of China was bad. Early 1800s European opinion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chinese Imperialism Foreign Coercion

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3 Background Dynasty—Qing Dynasty—Qing Early 1800s European opinion of China was bad. Early 1800s European opinion of China was bad. – Only a few trade outposts in Canton (S. China) Qing not interested in making foreign contacts Qing not interested in making foreign contacts European merchants upset over “Canton system” European merchants upset over “Canton system”

4 Internal Issues Qing dynasty--from Manchuria (called Manchus) Qing dynasty--from Manchuria (called Manchus) – Foreigners  maintain delicate balance of pleasing China as well as Manchuria maintain delicate balance of pleasing China as well as Manchuria Tremendous resentment toward Qing dynasty by native Chinese Tremendous resentment toward Qing dynasty by native Chinese rebellions threaten dynasty’s in internal stability rebellions threaten dynasty’s in internal stability

5 Opium War Chinese refuse to allow the importation of British products as well as British demand for tea = trade deficit Chinese refuse to allow the importation of British products as well as British demand for tea = trade deficit European merchants/Chinese partners began smuggling opium into China (made illegal in 1729) European merchants/Chinese partners began smuggling opium into China (made illegal in 1729) By 1800 smuggling widespread and very profitable for the British By 1800 smuggling widespread and very profitable for the British Huge demand for opium in China—widespread addiction (incl. high-ranking Qing officials) Huge demand for opium in China—widespread addiction (incl. high-ranking Qing officials) Britain sees ban as a direct economic threat = cause for war Britain sees ban as a direct economic threat = cause for war War begins War begins – Negotiations reached a stalemate – Most confrontations take place at sea where British are superior – Qing unable to mount an effective defense

6 Opium Dens

7 Treaty of Nanking “Unequal Treaties” “Unequal Treaties” – Canton system broken – 5 treaty ports opened – Hong Kong becomes British colony until 1997 – China forced to yield rights to western powers – Had to pay Britain war damages – Britain received “most-favored nation status” i.e. privileges extended to other nations automatically go to Britain as well. i.e. privileges extended to other nations automatically go to Britain as well. End Result End Result – Large section of China become “colonized” by Britain, France, Russia, and Germany, i.e. spheres of influence esp. Shanghai – 1899 by Open Door Policy U.S. demanded trade in China open to all nations U.S. demanded trade in China open to all nations

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9 Taiping Rebellion Means Great Peace Means Great Peace Helps to further weaken the Qing dynasty and sparks movement to reform Helps to further weaken the Qing dynasty and sparks movement to reform Hong Xiuguan—failed civil service exam—went crazy and said he was Jesus’ brother Hong Xiuguan—failed civil service exam—went crazy and said he was Jesus’ brother Manchus = devil Manchus = devil Movement to overthrow the Manchus Movement to overthrow the Manchus – Messianic, Christian inspired but also blended Confucian ideals – Outlaw opium, tobacco, concubines and foot binding – Followers were those who had lost livelihoods and land in the recent wars – Embraced gender equality – Kingdom became as large as France – 1853 establish capital in Nanjing

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11 Taiping Rebellion Problems: Problems: – GB upset b/c opium outlawed – FR upset b/c not Catholic GB/FR have audience with emperor’s subordinate GB/FR have audience with emperor’s subordinate st battle—Gen. and subordinates told to suppress foreigners st battle—Gen. and subordinates told to suppress foreigners – All are exposed to Western technology—help to break out of traditional mold GB helped Qing gov’t to suppress the rebellion in GB helped Qing gov’t to suppress the rebellion in 1864 – Undone by internal corruption, decadence and breaking their creed

12 Self-Strengthening Movement – Attempt to build up China Built up navy and trained military differently Built up navy and trained military differently – All suffer bureaucratic representation – Empress Dowager Cixi more interested in gov’t Usurps power Usurps power Allies with conservative people Allies with conservative people – Movement undermined by many political factors

13 Boxer Rebellion 1900 – Part of the empress dowager Cixi self- strengthening movement – Attempt to expel foreigners from China – Encouraged the Boxers to rise up and expel foreigners and Christians – Seized Beijing – Response—westerners and Japan send multi-national force to China to end the uprising and force Cixi to reform her policy

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15 Chinese Revolution 1911 Oct 1911 overthrow local garrison in Wuchang—leads to other provincial rebellions “War of Cession” from Qing Oct 1911 overthrow local garrison in Wuchang—leads to other provincial rebellions “War of Cession” from Qing Provinces have a sense of their own identity—nationalism Provinces have a sense of their own identity—nationalism 1912 Last emperor Pi Yu abdicates the throne 1912 Last emperor Pi Yu abdicates the throne – Imperial system thrown out – Mutiny by imperial soldiers – Scattered secret society upheavals – Organized plots, etc. Very different from Japan— no central leadership Very different from Japan— no central leadership

16 Establish a republic Prime minister, cabinet, diet established Prime minister, cabinet, diet established January 1, 1912 is the first official day of the Republic January 1, 1912 is the first official day of the Republic Provisional president is Sun Yat-sen Provisional president is Sun Yat-sen Pushed aside (1916) beginning a 15 years of military strongmen designated as President— warlord period Pushed aside (1916) beginning a 15 years of military strongmen designated as President— warlord period Politically it resembled the last few years of the Qing rule Politically it resembled the last few years of the Qing rule


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