Presentation on theme: "ALL YOU EVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT…. Personal, Subject, Object, Possessive, Reflexive, and Indefinite."— Presentation transcript:
ALL YOU EVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT…. Personal, Subject, Object, Possessive, Reflexive, and Indefinite
What is a Pronoun? A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun. Like a noun, a pronoun can refer to a person, place, thing, or idea. The word that a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent. For Example: Maria was lost. She didn’t panic. She checked the flashlight. It still worked.
Subject and Object Pronouns L6.1a Watch the video clip: https://edpuzzle.com/media/54f602d3cb7a02305a1f731b With your partner, label the subject and object pronouns in the following sentences below. S= Subject O= Object Sally is more silly than I. They are in our way. John will invite you to the birthday party tomorrow.
What is a Possessive Pronoun? L6.1a A possessive pronoun is a personal pronoun used to show ownership or relationship. SingularPlural my, mine your, yours her, hers, his, its our, ours your, yours their, theirs
To be continued… The possessive pronouns my, your, her, his, its, our, and their come before nouns. For Example: The dog pricked up its little ears. (ownership) It saw the boy and heard his loud cry for help. (relationship) The owner and his best friend came to the rescue. (relationship)
Write a sentence with a possessive pronoun. Example That new car is hers. Now you try
Pronouns can be tricky!!! Some possessive pronouns sound like contractions (its/it’s, your/you’re, their/they’re). Remember, a possessive pronoun never has an apostrophe. A contraction, however, always has an apostrophe.
List of Personal Pronouns… Type of Pronoun SubjectObjectPossessive Singular First Person Second Person Third Person I you he, she, it me you him, her, it my, mine your, yours his, her, hers, its Plural First Person Second Person Third Person we you they us you them our, ours your, yours their, theirs
How about a Quick Review? Directions: With your partner, complete the following review of pronouns and discuss why you chose the word to complete each sentence. Pronouns are used to replace a __________. Sometimes the pronoun is the _________ of the sentence. Other times, the pronoun receiving the action is called the _________ of the sentence. _____________ pronouns show ownership and some examples are its, hers, and theirs.
Treasure Hunt… Use the text to find examples of subject pronouns, object pronouns, and possessive pronouns. Subject PronounsObject PronounsPossessive Pronouns
What are Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns? L6.1b A pronoun that ends in self or selves are reflexive and intensive pronouns myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, herself, himself, itself, and themselves. Reflexive Pronouns: a reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and directs the action of the verb back to the subject. Reflexive pronouns are necessary to the meaning of a sentence. For Example: The Carson family tried to lift themselves out of poverty. Intensive Pronouns: an intensive pronoun enhances the subject, but it is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. For Example: Ben Carson wondered, as he had before, if he himself was smart.
Please watch the following interactive video. https://edpuzzle.com/media/54f4d8723dd85d38 2a9ba902 https://edpuzzle.com/media/54f4d8723dd85d38 2a9ba902
Check for understanding… Directions: Identify the reflexive pronoun in each sentence. A chameleon can give itself tasty meals of unsuspecting insects. I wish I could claim some of its amazing powers for myself. Identify the intensive pronoun in each sentence. Ed Sheeran became an overnight sensation and he himself is the reason for his success. The project was accomplished by we ourselves with no help from our parents. Turn and talk: Look at the examples above and tell your elbow partner the difference between intensive and reflexive pronouns, and make up your own example sentence using an intensive pronoun.
Recognize Inappropriate Shifts in Pronoun Number or Person L6.1c Part 1: Shifts in Person First person, 2 nd person, 3 rd person Part 2: Shifts in Number Singular or plural
Recognizing 1 st Person Writers or speakers who use first person speak directly about themselves by using the words I, me, my, mine. I think I will start a new company. I want some- thing that is all mine!
Recognizing 1 st Person Writers or speakers who use first person speak directly about them-selves by using the words I, me, my, mine or the plural pronouns we, us, our, ours. Notice that the speaker is still talking about himself even though he is now including someone else. We could start our own company. Then we could have something that is truly ours.
Recognizing 2nd Person Writers or speakers who use second person are not speaking about them- selves. They are writing or speaking directly to someone else. You could start your own company. Then you could have something that is truly yours.
Recognizing 3rd Person Writers or speakers who use third person are neither speaking about themselves nor directly to someone else. They are writing or speaking about someone or something else by using words such as he, him, she, her, it, its. Sandra should start her own business.
What is a shift in person? A shift in person refers to a mistaken change in person within a sentence or group of related sentences.
Example of a Shift in Person When people get angry, we sometimes say things you would not say when calm. Do you recognize the problems?
Example of a Shift in Person When people get angry, we sometimes say things you would not say when calm. people = 3rd person we = 1st person you = 2nd person
Revised Sentence When people get angry, they sometimes say things they would not say when calm. people = 3rd person they = 3rd person
Another Shift in Person On reaching the campsite, one must be upset to discover you must walk another mile for fresh drinking water. Can you spot the problem?
Another Shift in Person On reaching the campsite, one must be upset to discover you must walk another mile for fresh drinking water. one = 3rd person; you = 2nd person How can you revise it?
Revised Sentence On reaching the campsite, one must be upset to discover one must walk another mile for fresh drinking water. On reaching the campsite, one must be upset to discover he or she must walk another mile for fresh drinking water. On reaching the campsite, you must be upset to discover you must walk another mile for fresh drinking water.
Another Shift in Person Nick, Lisa, and I took a close look at the money, and you could see that it was fake. How would you correct this sentence?
Revised Sentence Nick, Lisa, and I took a close look at the money, and we could see that it was fake. What did we do? We changed the 2 nd person you to first person plural we. Notice that the subject (Nick, Lisa, and I) is first person plural.
Right now the sentence is 3 rd person AND 1 st person. Confusing!!! Rewrite the sentence so there is no awkward shift in pronoun placement. The girls were waiting all day for their ride to the mall, so we finally asked a neighbor to drive us. Next slide…check your work
Revised Sentence The girls were waiting all day for their ride to the mall, so they finally asked a neighbor to drive them. 3 rd person plural Or… Sally, Jane, and I were waiting all day for our ride to the mall, so we finally asked a neighbor to drive us. 1 st person plural
Part 2: Shifts in Pronoun Number You may remember from the pronoun chart that some pronouns are singular and others plural. One More than one
Singular and Plural Pronouns Plural: we, us, our, ours, they, them, their, theirs Singular: I, me, my, mine, she, her, hers (or he, him, his when referring to a man or a boy ) Singular: it, its
Special Note Depending on whether one is writing or speaking to an individual or a group, second person pronouns (including you, your, yours) can be either singular or plural. you Would you like to use my phone?
Choosing the Right Pronoun Just as you select pronouns based on the correct “person,” you must also select them based on “number.” Only two types of number exist: singular plural
What is a shift in number? Changing from singular to plural or from plural to singular when referring to the same person or thing creates a shift in number.
How do I know if I am shifting number? First, you must recognize the word serving as the “antecedent” for the pronoun. Then you must match the “number” of the pronoun to the “number” of the antecedent. Singular or plural?
What is an antecedent? Although this rule may sound difficult, it is actually quite simple. The antecedent is the word that the pronoun refers to--in other words, the word the pronoun is renaming.
Example The car looked brand new although it was actually sixty years old. Pronoun: it (singular) Antecedent: car (singular)
Another Example These students attend college during the day, and they work in a restaurant at night. Pronoun? Antecedent?
Another Example These students attend college during the day, and they work in a restaurant at night. Pronoun? they (plural) Antecedent? students (plural)
A Final Example The manager was almost run down as shoppers hurried past him toward the meat department. Pronoun? Antecedent?
A Final Example The manager was almost run down as shoppers hurried past him toward the meat department. Pronoun? him (singular) Antecedent? manager (singular)
Example of a Shift in Number Classes have been cancelled for today, but it will resume tomorrow. Pronoun? Antecedent?
Example of a Shift in Number Classes have been cancelled for today, but it will resume tomorrow. Pronoun? it (singular) Antecedent? Classes (plural) When pronoun and antecedent don’t match in number, you have a “shift in number.”
Revising the Shift Classes have been cancelled for today, but they will resume tomorrow. Pronoun? they (plural) Antecedent? Classes (plural)
A Common Cause of Shifts in Number Shifts in number often result when a writer tries to avoid “gender bias.” “Gender bias” refers to discrimination against either gender--male or female.
Example of Number Shift to Avoid Gender Bias An employee who wishes to take time off during the holidays should submit their request by Friday. their (plural) employee (singular)
The Result Although the writer correctly included both genders, the result was a pronoun error. The writer could have avoided the error in either of two ways:
Revision # 1 An employee who wishes to take time off during the holidays should submit his or her request by Friday. Both pronoun and antecedent are now singular.
Caution This solution works well as long as the writer does not need to use “his or her” repeatedly. Such repetition would result in awkward sentences. his or her
Revision # 2 Employees who wish to take time off during the holidays should submit their requests by Friday. By using a plural pronoun and plural antecedent, writers can avoid both the pronoun error and the potentially awkward sentences using “his or her.”
Can you spot the shift in number? Both snakes hissed, and one flicked their tongue.
The Shift in Number Revised Both snakes hissed, and one flicked its tongue.
Collective Nouns Collective nouns Collective nouns represent a group and are usually considered singular. faculty government class committee jury team tribe society company flock school
Example Incorrect: The jury deliberated two weeks before giving their verdict to the judge. Correct: The jury deliberated two weeks before giving its verdict to the judge. The jury acts as a single unit.
Another Example Incorrect: A family offers their members both physical and emotional support. Correct: A family offers its members both physical and emotional support.
A Third Example Incorrect: The orchestra gave their summer concert on the Fourth of July. Correct: The orchestra gave its summer concert on the Fourth of July.
Think of an appropriate pronoun. The committee will soon make _____ recommendations. The team will play for the championship if ____ can win one more game. After touring Gilcrease Museum, the class loaded into _____ school bus.
The Answers The committee will soon make its recommendations. The team will play for the championship if it can win one more game. After touring Gilcrease Museum, the class loaded into its school bus.
Ready for a challenge? Indefinite Pronouns When writing, you must also pay particular attention to indefinite pronouns, such as the following, when they serve as antecedents: anyone, everyone, someone, no one anybody, everybody, somebody, nobody either, neither each of, either of, neither of, one of, every one of,
Singular or Plural? Indefinite pronouns are normally considered singular. Therefore, when they serve as antecedents, the pronouns that follow them should be singular.
Example Incorrect: Neither of the boys has opened their gift yet. Correct: Neither of the boys has opened his gift yet. In this sentence, we are looking at the boys as individuals. Each boy has received his own gift and will open it himself.
Another Example Incorrect: Everyone has their own opinion. Correct: Everyone has his or her own opinion. Again, each person is looked at as an individual.
Think of an appropriate pronoun. Someone left _____ purse in the shopping cart. Each of the houses has a hot tub in _________ master bathroom. Everyone is entitled to ______ own opinion. Neither of the actors had memorized ____ lines yet.
The Answers Someone left her purse in the shopping cart. Each of the houses has a hot tub in its master bathroom. Everyone is entitled to his or her own opinion. Neither of the actors had memorized his lines yet.
REMEMBER-- REMEMBER-- Pronouns and antecedents must agree in person and number.
Some of the Rules Use 1st person pronouns when writing or speaking about yourself. Use 2nd person pronouns when talking or speaking directly to another person or group. Use 3rd person when talking or speaking about another person, object, or group.
The Remaining Rules Use singular pronouns when the antecedent is singular. (Remember that indefinite pronouns and collective nouns are nearly always singular.) Use plural pronouns when the antecedent is plural.
Check for understanding: Watch interactive Edpuzzle video about pronoun shifts
Recognize and Correct Vague Pronouns with Unclear Antecedents L6.1d Rule: It must be clear to the reader what noun (antecedent) the pronoun is referring to in a sentence.
Background Information Ambiguous reference Avoid ambiguous reference. A pronoun refers to the nearest noun, even though the nearest noun may not be the real antecedent.
Examples Oscar told Arnold that he’d bought the wrong book. (Which guy purchased the wrong book?) Cindy was going to pick up the baby, but then she fell asleep. (Who fell asleep?) I was very busy last week; it is better this week. (What is it?)
Vague = Unclear…up in the air… Vague : Remove the wrappers from the boxes and then discard them. (Discard the boxes of the wrappers?) Clear : Discard the wrappers after you remove them from the boxes Avoid vague reference. This occurs when a pronoun refers to a general idea or thing instead of a specific noun.
Vague: They say more rain is on the way. (Who is/are they?) Clear: The weather bureau says more rain is on the way Vague vs. Clear
Vague: Last week I had three tests and a book report due. It was much better this week. (what is it?) Clear: Last week I had three tests and a book report due. My schedule was much better this week. Now you try. With a partner, restate this sentence with the vague pronoun, so the reader is clear who “it” is.
Practice Rewrite each sentence correcting the ambiguous or vague pronoun reference. 1. When Eric spoke to his girlfriend’s father, he was very polite. 2. Remove the door from the frame and paint it. 3. Take the socks off your feet and wash them. 4. Albert told Oscar he’d bought the wrong book. 5. Cindy was going to pick up the baby, but then she fell asleep.
Almost Done Performance Tasks… Select one of the following performance tasks to complete. The performance task must highlight subject pronoun, object pronoun, possessive, reflexive, and indefinite pronouns. If you have your own idea, present it to your teacher for approval. Creativity is unlimited!!! Create a picture storybook on the types of pronouns. Create an assessment on pronouns. Your assessment must have various types of questions (multiple choice, essay, fill in the blank, etc.) Create a cartoon, monologue, play, poem, or rap about the types of pronouns. Create a study guide about the types of pronouns.
Pronouns in your writing Using your teacher’s writing prompt, write a 10 minute story. Trade papers with a partner. Highlight ALL of your partner’s pronouns. How many did he or she use? Was your partner able to: Use clear pronouns? Use correct person (point of view) and number (singular or plural)?