Presentation on theme: "All you ever wanted to Know about…."— Presentation transcript:
1All you ever wanted to Know about…. Personal, Subject, Object, Possessive,Reflexive, and Indefinite
2What is a Pronoun?A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun.Like a noun, a pronoun can refer to a person, place, thing, or idea.The word that a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent.For Example:Maria was lost. She didn’t panic.She checked the flashlight. It still worked.
3Subject and Object Pronouns L6.1a Watch the video clip:https://edpuzzle.com/media/54f602d3cb7a02305a1f731bWith your partner, label the subject and object pronouns in the following sentences below.S= Subject O= ObjectSally is more silly than I.They are in our way.John will invite you to the birthday party tomorrow.
4What is a Possessive Pronoun? L6.1a A possessive pronoun is a personal pronoun used to show ownership or relationship.SingularPluralmy, mineyour, yoursher, hers, his, itsour, ourstheir, theirs
5To be continued…The possessive pronouns my, your, her, his, its, our, and their come before nouns.For Example:The dog pricked up its little ears. (ownership)It saw the boy and heard his loud cry for help. (relationship)The owner and his best friend came to the rescue. (relationship)
6Write a sentence with a possessive pronoun. ExampleThat new car is hers.Now you try
7Pronouns can be tricky!!!Some possessive pronouns sound like contractions (its/it’s, your/you’re, their/they’re).Remember, a possessive pronoun never has an apostrophe.A contraction, however, always has an apostrophe.
8List of Personal Pronouns… Type of PronounSubjectObjectPossessiveSingularFirst PersonSecond PersonThird PersonIyouhe, she, itmehim, her, itmy, mineyour, yourshis, her, hers, itsPluralwetheyusthemour, ourstheir, theirs
9How about a Quick Review? Directions: With your partner, complete the following review of pronouns and discuss why you chose the word to complete each sentence.Pronouns are used to replace a __________. Sometimes the pronoun is the _________ of the sentence. Other times, the pronoun receiving the action is called the _________ of the sentence. _____________ pronouns show ownership and some examples are its, hers, and theirs.
10Treasure Hunt…Use the text to find examples of subject pronouns, object pronouns, and possessive pronouns.Subject PronounsObject PronounsPossessive Pronouns
11What are Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns? L6.1b A pronoun that ends in self or selves are reflexive and intensive pronouns myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, herself, himself, itself, and themselves.Reflexive Pronouns: a reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and directs the action of the verb back to the subject.Reflexive pronouns are necessary to the meaning of a sentence.For Example:The Carson family tried to lift themselves out of poverty.Intensive Pronouns: an intensive pronoun enhances the subject, but it is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence.For Example:Ben Carson wondered, as he had before, if he himself was smart.
12Please watch the following interactive video. https://edpuzzle.com/media/54f4d8723dd85d38 2a9ba902
13Check for understanding… Directions:Identify the reflexive pronoun in each sentence.A chameleon can give itself tasty meals of unsuspecting insects.I wish I could claim some of its amazing powers for myself.Identify the intensive pronoun in each sentence.Ed Sheeran became an overnight sensation and he himself is the reason for his success.The project was accomplished by we ourselves with no help from our parents.Turn and talk: Look at the examples above and tell your elbow partner the difference between intensive and reflexive pronouns, and make up your own example sentence using an intensive pronoun.
14Recognize Inappropriate Shifts in Pronoun Number or Person L6.1c Part 1: Shifts in PersonFirst person, 2nd person, 3rd personPart 2: Shifts in NumberSingular or plural
15Recognizing 1st Person I think I will start a new company. I want some-thing that isall mine!Writers or speakers who use first person speak directly about themselves by using the words I, me, my, mine.
16Recognizing 1st PersonWe could start our own company. Then we could have something that is truly ours.Writers or speakers who use first person speak directly about them-selves by using the words I, me, my, mine or the plural pronouns we, us, our, ours.Notice that the speaker is still talking about himself even though he is now including someone else.
17Recognizing 2nd PersonYou could start your own company. Then you could have something that is truly yours.Writers or speakers who use second person are not speaking about them- selves.They are writing or speaking directly to someone else.
18Sandra should start her own business. Recognizing 3rd PersonWriters or speakers who use third person are neither speaking about themselves nor directly to someone else.They are writing or speaking about someone or something else by using words such as he, him, she, her, it, its.Sandra should start her own business.
19What is a shift in person? A shift in person refers to a mistaken changein person within a sentence or group ofrelated sentences.
20Example of a Shift in Person When people get angry, we sometimes say things you would not say when calm.Do you recognize the problems?
21Example of a Shift in Person When people get angry, we sometimes say things you would not say when calm.people = 3rd personwe = 1st personyou = 2nd person
22Revised SentenceWhen people get angry, they sometimes say things they would not say when calm.people = 3rd personthey = 3rd person
23Another Shift in Person On reaching the campsite, one must be upset to discover you must walk another mile for fresh drinking water.Can you spot the problem?
24Another Shift in Person On reaching the campsite, one must be upset to discover you must walk another mile for fresh drinking water.one = 3rd person; you = 2nd personHow can you revise it?
25Revised SentenceOn reaching the campsite, one must be upset to discover one must walk another mile for fresh drinking water.On reaching the campsite, one must be upset to discover he or she must walk another mile for fresh drinking water.On reaching the campsite, you must be upset to discover you must walk another mile for fresh drinking water.
26Another Shift in Person Nick, Lisa, and I took a close look at the money, and you could see that it was fake.How would you correct this sentence?
27Revised SentenceNick, Lisa, and I took a close look at the money, and we could see that it was fake.What did we do? We changed the 2nd person you to first person plural we. Notice that the subject (Nick, Lisa, and I) is first person plural.
28Right now the sentence is 3rd person AND 1st person. Confusing Right now the sentence is 3rd person AND 1st person. Confusing!!! Rewrite the sentence so there is no awkward shift in pronoun placement.The girls were waiting all day for their ride to the mall, so we finally asked a neighbor to drive us.Next slide…check your work
29Revised SentenceThe girls were waiting all day for their ride to the mall, so they finally asked a neighbor to drive them.3rd person pluralOr…Sally, Jane, and I were waiting all day for our ride to the mall, so we finally asked a neighbor to drive us.1st person plural
30Part 2: Shifts in Pronoun Number You may remember from the pronoun chart that some pronouns are singular and others plural.OneMore than one
31Singular and Plural Pronouns Singular: I, me, my,mine, she, her, hers(or he, him, his whenreferring to a manor a boy )Plural: we, us, our, ours,they, them, their, theirsSingular:it, its
32Special NoteDepending on whether one is writing or speaking to an individual or a group, second person pronouns (including you, your, yours) can be either singular or plural.Would youlike to use myphone?
33Choosing the Right Pronoun Just as you select pronouns based on the correct “person,” you must also select them based on “number.”Only two types of number exist:singularplural
34What is a shift in number? Changing from singular to plural or from plural to singular when referring to the same person or thing creates a shift in number.
35How do I know if I am shifting number? Singularorplural?First, you must recognize the word serving as the “antecedent” for the pronoun.Then you must match the “number” of the pronoun to the “number” of the antecedent.
36What is an antecedent?Although this rule may sound difficult, it is actually quite simple.The antecedent is the word that the pronoun refers to--in other words, the word the pronoun is renaming.
37ExampleThe car looked brand new although it was actually sixty years old.Pronoun: it (singular)Antecedent: car (singular)
38Another ExampleThese students attend college during the day, and they work in a restaurant at night.Pronoun?Antecedent?
39Another ExampleThese students attend college during the day, and they work in a restaurant at night.Pronoun? they (plural)Antecedent? students (plural)
40A Final ExampleThe manager was almost run down as shoppers hurried past him toward the meat department.Pronoun?Antecedent?
41A Final ExampleThe manager was almost run down as shoppers hurried past him toward the meat department.Pronoun? him (singular)Antecedent? manager (singular)
42Example of a Shift in Number Classes have been cancelled for today, but it will resume tomorrow.Pronoun?Antecedent?
43Example of a Shift in Number Classes have been cancelled for today, but it will resume tomorrow.Pronoun? it (singular)Antecedent? Classes (plural)When pronoun and antecedent don’t match in number, you have a “shift in number.”
44Revising the ShiftClasses have been cancelled for today, but they will resume tomorrow.Pronoun? they (plural)Antecedent? Classes (plural)
45A Common Cause of Shifts in Number Shifts in number often result when a writer tries to avoid “gender bias.”“Gender bias” refers to discrimination against either gender--male or female.
46Example of Number Shift to Avoid Gender Bias An employee who wishes to take time off during the holidays should submit their request by Friday.their (plural)employee (singular)
47The ResultAlthough the writer correctly included both genders, the result was a pronoun error.The writer could have avoided the error in either of two ways:
48Revision # 1An employee who wishes to take time off during the holidays should submit his or her request by Friday.Both pronoun and antecedent are now singular.
49CautionThis solution works well as long as the writer does not need to use “his or her” repeatedly.Such repetition would result in awkward sentences.his or herhis or herhis or herhis or herhis or herhis or her
50Revision # 2Employees who wish to take time off during the holidays should submit their requests by Friday.By using a plural pronoun and plural antecedent, writers can avoid both the pronoun error and the potentially awkward sentences using “his or her.”
51Can you spot the shift in number? Both snakes hissed, and one flicked their tongue.
52The Shift in Number Revised Both snakes hissed, and one flicked its tongue.
53Collective NounsclassCollective nouns represent a group and are usually considered singular.societyfacultyjuryschoolcommitteetribegovernmentteamcompanyflock
54ExampleIncorrect: The jury deliberated two weeks before giving their verdict to the judge.Correct: The jury deliberated two weeks before giving its verdict to the judge.The jury acts as a single unit.
55Another ExampleIncorrect: A family offers their members both physical and emotional support.Correct: A family offers its members both physical and emotional support.
56A Third ExampleIncorrect: The orchestra gave their summer concert on the Fourth of July.Correct: The orchestra gave its summer concert on the Fourth of July.
57Think of an appropriate pronoun. The committee will soon make _____ recommendations.The team will play for the championship if ____ can win one more game.After touring Gilcrease Museum, the class loaded into _____ school bus.
58The Answers The committee will soon make its recommendations. The team will play for the championship if it can win one more game.After touring Gilcrease Museum, the class loaded into its school bus.
59Ready for a challenge? Indefinite Pronouns When writing, you must also pay particular attention to indefinite pronouns, such as the following, when they serve as antecedents:anyone, everyone, someone, no oneanybody, everybody, somebody, nobodyeither, neithereach of, either of, neither of, one of, every one of,
60Singular or Plural?Indefinite pronouns are normally considered singular.Therefore, when they serve as antecedents, the pronouns that follow them should be singular.
61Example Incorrect: Neither of the boys has opened their gift yet. Correct: Neither of the boys has opened his gift yet.In this sentence, we are looking at the boys as individuals.Each boy has received his own gift and will open it himself.
62Another Example Incorrect: Everyone has their own opinion. Correct: Everyone has his or her own opinion.Again, each person is looked at as an individual.
63Think of an appropriate pronoun. Someone left _____ purse in the shopping cart.Each of the houses has a hot tub in _________ master bathroom.Everyone is entitled to ______ own opinion.Neither of the actors had memorized ____ lines yet.
64The Answers Someone left her purse in the shopping cart. Each of the houses has a hot tub in its master bathroom.Everyone is entitled to his or her own opinion.Neither of the actors had memorized his lines yet.
65REMEMBER--Pronouns and antecedents must agree in person and number.
66Some of the RulesUse 1st person pronouns when writing or speaking about yourself.Use 2nd person pronouns when talking or speaking directly to another person or group.Use 3rd person when talking or speaking about another person, object, or group.
67The Remaining RulesUse singular pronouns when the antecedent is singular. (Remember that indefinite pronouns and collective nouns are nearly always singular.)Use plural pronouns when the antecedent is plural.
68Check for understanding: Watch interactive Edpuzzle video about pronoun shifts
69Recognize and Correct Vague Pronouns with Unclear Antecedents L6.1d Rule:It must be clear to the reader what noun (antecedent) the pronoun is referring to in a sentence.
70Background Information Ambiguous referenceAvoid ambiguous reference. A pronoun refers to the nearest noun, even though the nearest noun may not be the real antecedent.
71ExamplesOscar told Arnold that he’d bought the wrong book. (Which guy purchased the wrong book?)Cindy was going to pick up the baby, but then she fell asleep. (Who fell asleep?)I was very busy last week; it is better this week. (What is it?)
72Vague = Unclear…up in the air… Avoid vague reference. This occurs when a pronoun refers to a general idea or thing instead of a specific noun.Vague : Remove the wrappers from the boxes and then discard them.(Discard the boxes of the wrappers?)Clear : Discard the wrappers after you remove them from the boxes
73Vague vs. Clear Vague: They say more rain is on the way. (Who is/are they?)Clear: The weather bureau says more rain is on the way
74Vague vs. ClearNow you try. With a partner, restate this sentence with the vague pronoun, so the reader is clear who “it” is.Vague: Last week I had three tests and a book report due. It was much better this week.(what is it?)Clear: Last week I had three tests and a book report due. My schedule was much better this week.
75Albert told Oscar he’d bought the wrong book. Practice Rewrite each sentence correcting the ambiguous or vague pronoun reference.When Eric spoke to his girlfriend’s father, he was very polite.Remove the door from the frame and paint it.Take the socks off your feet and wash them.Albert told Oscar he’d bought the wrong book.Cindy was going to pick up the baby, but then she fell asleep.
76Almost Done Performance Tasks… Select one of the following performance tasks to complete. The performance task must highlight subject pronoun, object pronoun, possessive, reflexive, and indefinite pronouns. If you have your own idea, present it to your teacher for approval. Creativity is unlimited!!!Create a picture storybook on the types of pronouns.Create an assessment on pronouns. Your assessment must have various types of questions (multiple choice, essay, fill in the blank, etc.)Create a cartoon, monologue, play, poem, or rap about the types of pronouns.Create a study guide about the types of pronouns.
77Pronouns in your writing Using your teacher’s writing prompt, write a 10 minute story.Trade papers with a partner.Highlight ALL of your partner’s pronouns. How many did he or she use?Was your partner able to:Use clear pronouns?Use correct person (point of view) and number (singular or plural)?