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Chapters 6-7. Launching a New Nation Judiciary Act of 1789 Judiciary Act of 1789 Created the initial judicial structure (still the same) Created the initial.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapters 6-7. Launching a New Nation Judiciary Act of 1789 Judiciary Act of 1789 Created the initial judicial structure (still the same) Created the initial."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapters 6-7

2 Launching a New Nation Judiciary Act of 1789 Judiciary Act of 1789 Created the initial judicial structure (still the same) Created the initial judicial structure (still the same) Supreme Court is the “law of the land” Supreme Court is the “law of the land” George Washington George Washington First President First President Had many challenges when he took office Had many challenges when he took office Cabinet Cabinet Created to help George Washington govern better Created to help George Washington govern better Made up of all the chief advisors to the President Made up of all the chief advisors to the President

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4 Cabinet Cabinet—departments with chief advisors who would become the presidents advisors on a variety of topics Cabinet—departments with chief advisors who would become the presidents advisors on a variety of topics Initial Cabinet: Initial Cabinet: Department of State, Department of War, Department of the Treasury, and the Attorney General Department of State, Department of War, Department of the Treasury, and the Attorney General Today’s Cabinet Today’s Cabinet There are a lot more Cabinet members today There are a lot more Cabinet members today

5 Jefferson/Hamilton Debates Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton Believed in a strong national government Believed in a strong national government Wealthy Upper Class, Good Trade/Industry Wealthy Upper Class, Good Trade/Industry Very much like GB Very much like GB Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson Believed in strong state governments Believed in strong state governments More concerned with farmers (southerners) More concerned with farmers (southerners) Washington DC became the capital of United States (made Southerners happy) Washington DC became the capital of United States (made Southerners happy)

6 Early Political Parties Federalists Federalists People who shared Hamilton’s view People who shared Hamilton’s view Strong government is the key to a successful country Strong government is the key to a successful country Democratic Republicans Democratic Republicans People who shared Jefferson’s view People who shared Jefferson’s view Strong state governments is the key to a successful country Strong state governments is the key to a successful country

7 Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion Farmers in the west were mad about high taxes Farmers in the west were mad about high taxes Hamilton had the government/army put a swift end to the rebellion (much different than Shay’s) Hamilton had the government/army put a swift end to the rebellion (much different than Shay’s) Showed 2 Important things Showed 2 Important things New Power of our government New Power of our government Division that was starting to appear between N/S and Urban/Rural Division that was starting to appear between N/S and Urban/Rural

8 Foreign Problems French Revolution (US Support??) French Revolution (US Support??) GB had supported the old leaders of France.. GB had supported the old leaders of France.. Federalist supported the British pt. of view Federalist supported the British pt. of view Dem-Republicans supported the French ppl.. Dem-Republicans supported the French ppl.. Washington decided on neutrality--not taking either side in the revolution. Washington decided on neutrality--not taking either side in the revolution. Other Problems Other Problems Spanish and the British were not leaving the lands west of the Appalachian Mtns. Spanish and the British were not leaving the lands west of the Appalachian Mtns. Native American Issues Native American Issues

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10 Native American Issues Ohio Battles Ohio Battles US was fighting against Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy US was fighting against Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy Fighting over land by the Ohio River Fighting over land by the Ohio River Americans were finally able to win Americans were finally able to win Set a precedent on how to deal with Indians Set a precedent on how to deal with Indians Buy land way cheaper than what it is worth Buy land way cheaper than what it is worth Fight against them if they resist Fight against them if they resist Force them to leave... Force them to leave...

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12 Politics George Washington decided against a 3rd term as President George Washington decided against a 3rd term as President John Adams (F) ran against Thomas Jefferson (DR) John Adams (F) ran against Thomas Jefferson (DR) Adams won the election Adams won the election Constitution said that Adams would be President and Jefferson (runner-up) would be VP Constitution said that Adams would be President and Jefferson (runner-up) would be VP Sectionalism--placing the interest of one region ahead of those of the nation Sectionalism--placing the interest of one region ahead of those of the nation Most of the North voted for Adams Most of the North voted for Adams Most of the South voted for Jefferson Most of the South voted for Jefferson

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14 Other Issues XYZ Affair XYZ Affair Attempt by the French to bribe Americans who were attempting to negotiate a peace treaty. Attempt by the French to bribe Americans who were attempting to negotiate a peace treaty. Made us mad at the French (almost went to war) Made us mad at the French (almost went to war) Alien and Sedition Acts Alien and Sedition Acts Passed by Federalist Passed by Federalist Limited the rights of immigrants, done b/c immigrants tended to be Dem-Reps. Limited the rights of immigrants, done b/c immigrants tended to be Dem-Reps. Violated the constitution Violated the constitution

15 Politics Again Election of 1800 Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson vs. John Adams Thomas Jefferson vs. John Adams Jefferson and his Vice-Presidential candidate Aaron Burr both tied for the most electoral votes Jefferson and his Vice-Presidential candidate Aaron Burr both tied for the most electoral votes Alexander Hamilton convinced the House to vote for Jefferson (He would become the 3rd President) Alexander Hamilton convinced the House to vote for Jefferson (He would become the 3rd President) Famous Duel Famous Duel Burr was mad at Hamilton, challenged him to a duel Burr was mad at Hamilton, challenged him to a duel Hamilton fired his shot in the air, Burr shot Hamilton in the chest and killed him...then ran away to Europe. Hamilton fired his shot in the air, Burr shot Hamilton in the chest and killed him...then ran away to Europe.

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17 Politics Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson Did everything he could to make the govt. smaller Did everything he could to make the govt. smaller Federalist Party began to fall apart Federalist Party began to fall apart John Marshall John Marshall Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Increased the power of the Court Increased the power of the Court Marbury vs Madison Marbury vs Madison Established the idea of Judicial Review Established the idea of Judicial Review Supreme Court look at whether laws/actions follow the constitution Supreme Court look at whether laws/actions follow the constitution

18 Westward Expansion Daniel Boone Daniel Boone One of the first western explorers One of the first western explorers Created a road from Virginia to Kentucky Created a road from Virginia to Kentucky French Interests French Interests France (Napoleon) bought a ton of land from Spain, wanted to create an Empire in America France (Napoleon) bought a ton of land from Spain, wanted to create an Empire in America Had problems governing Haiti, decided to sell land Had problems governing Haiti, decided to sell land Louisiana Purchase Louisiana Purchase France sold land west of the Mississippi River and New Orleans for 15 million dollars (doubled the size of America) France sold land west of the Mississippi River and New Orleans for 15 million dollars (doubled the size of America)

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20 Lewis and Clark--were chose to explore the Louisiana Purchase Sacajawea--Indian Guide that helped them on their trip

21 War of 1812 Reason why US declared war on GB Reason why US declared war on GB 1. Impressment—British would seize Americans at sea and make them fight for the British against France. In response to this Jefferson passed an Embargo (ban on exporting goods) to France and Great Britain. 2. Indian Problems—Great Britain was helping the Native Americans form an confederacy against the William Henry Harrison and the Americans. Tecumseh—Indian Chief, the battle of Tippecanoe…Harrison became a hero Tecumseh—Indian Chief, the battle of Tippecanoe…Harrison became a hero 3. War Hawks—young congressmen who favored war with GB to help strengthen America

22 War of What happened What happened What happened Initially the US lost most battles—not ready to fight Initially the US lost most battles—not ready to fight Eventually, the US won some battles in Canada and the Ohio Territory Eventually, the US won some battles in Canada and the Ohio Territory US NAVY helped (small ships that were able to move quicker than the British ships) US NAVY helped (small ships that were able to move quicker than the British ships) In 1814, the British captured Washington DC and burned all the government buildings In 1814, the British captured Washington DC and burned all the government buildings GB eventually became tired of fighting against the Americans GB eventually became tired of fighting against the Americans

23 War of the end Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson Became famous for winning a bunch of battles against the British and Native Americans Became famous for winning a bunch of battles against the British and Native Americans Battle of New Orleans—famous battle that the Americans won (actually fought after the British had surrendered) Battle of New Orleans—famous battle that the Americans won (actually fought after the British had surrendered) Treaty of Ghent Treaty of Ghent Peace Treaty that ended the fighting Peace Treaty that ended the fighting After the war, the Americans and the British had a much better relationship (friends ever since) After the war, the Americans and the British had a much better relationship (friends ever since)

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25 Chapter 7 Regional Economics Create Differences

26 Economic Changes Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution Factories were able to start mass producing Factories were able to start mass producing Social and economic changed that occurred because of an increase in technology Social and economic changed that occurred because of an increase in technology New England was the first place in America to become “industrialized” New England was the first place in America to become “industrialized” Many young men/women left the farms in the north and moved to cities Many young men/women left the farms in the north and moved to cities

27 Regional Differences North North More industry, small farms (grew what family needed) More industry, small farms (grew what family needed) Started to invest more in livestock---no slaves Started to invest more in livestock---no slaves South South No reason to industrialize (make more factories) No reason to industrialize (make more factories) Eli Whitney—Invented the Cotton Gin Eli Whitney—Invented the Cotton Gin Made it easier to mass produce cotton Made it easier to mass produce cotton States like Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana grew in pop. States like Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana grew in pop. Cotton Kingdom (Ala, Miss, La)---area that produced a ton of cotton. Cotton Kingdom (Ala, Miss, La)---area that produced a ton of cotton. 500,000 new slaves were brought to the South after the Cotton Gin was invented 500,000 new slaves were brought to the South after the Cotton Gin was invented

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30 Economic Differences Tariff of 1816 Tariff of 1816 Placed a tax on all goods imported into America Placed a tax on all goods imported into America North was happy b/c it encouraged manufacturing in America North was happy b/c it encouraged manufacturing in America South was upset because they need to import more goods than the North South was upset because they need to import more goods than the North Ultimately it led to more money coming into America Ultimately it led to more money coming into America McCulloch vs. Maryland McCulloch vs. Maryland National government had control over the economy and would be more powerful than state governments. National government had control over the economy and would be more powerful than state governments.

31 Attempts to Promote Unity Henry Clay Henry Clay Wanted to unite America by economy and transportation Wanted to unite America by economy and transportation National Road National Road Connect Maryland to Illinois Connect Maryland to Illinois Erie Canal Erie Canal Connected Lake Erie (all the Great Lakes) to the Atlantic Ocean (via Hudson River) Connected Lake Erie (all the Great Lakes) to the Atlantic Ocean (via Hudson River) People could ship things cheaper from the Midwest. People could ship things cheaper from the Midwest. Robert Fulton Robert Fulton Created the first steam ship, changed river and lake transporation Created the first steam ship, changed river and lake transporation

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33 Internal Affairs Nationalism Nationalism Belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional interests Belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional interests Monroe Doctrine Monroe Doctrine James Monroe (Pres) told European countries to stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere James Monroe (Pres) told European countries to stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere Also said the US would stay out of their business Also said the US would stay out of their business Russia, Spain, Portugal were looking to expand in America Russia, Spain, Portugal were looking to expand in America This causes settlers to move west This causes settlers to move west

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35 Missouri Compromise Controversy Controversy Missouri had 60,000 people—wanted to be a state Missouri had 60,000 people—wanted to be a state At the time, there were 11 free states (no slavery) and 11 slave states At the time, there were 11 free states (no slavery) and 11 slave states Missouri wanted to have slaves and Northern Congressmen blocked it from becoming a state Missouri wanted to have slaves and Northern Congressmen blocked it from becoming a state People became very upset People became very upset Northerners thought South was trying to expand slavery, Southerners thought the North was trying to end slavery Northerners thought South was trying to expand slavery, Southerners thought the North was trying to end slavery

36 Missouri Compromise Missouri Compromise Missouri Compromise Missouri would be admitted as a slave state Missouri would be admitted as a slave state Maine would be created/admitted as a free state Maine would be created/admitted as a free state Louisiana Territory would be divided into 2 regions…lands north of the line could not have slaves, lands south of the line could have slaves. Louisiana Territory would be divided into 2 regions…lands north of the line could not have slaves, lands south of the line could have slaves line (southern border of Missouri) line (southern border of Missouri)

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38 Age of Jackson John Quincy Adams vs Andrew Jackson (1824) John Quincy Adams vs Andrew Jackson (1824) Adams won the presidency but there were issues Adams won the presidency but there were issues Adams had more electoral votes (not a majority though) and less total votes than Jackson Adams had more electoral votes (not a majority though) and less total votes than Jackson Henry Clay convinced the House of Reps to vote for Adams…Jackson became very upset Henry Clay convinced the House of Reps to vote for Adams…Jackson became very upset Jackson decided to form his own political party (Democrats)…had support b/c he was popular Jackson decided to form his own political party (Democrats)…had support b/c he was popular In 1828, Jackson won the Presidential Election In 1828, Jackson won the Presidential Election

39 Policies of Jackson Spoils System Spoils System He replaced qualified people in the government with people that he was friends with (wouldn’t say no to him) He replaced qualified people in the government with people that he was friends with (wouldn’t say no to him) Indian Removal Act Indian Removal Act First tried Assimilation—give up own culture and become more America. (Some did this) First tried Assimilation—give up own culture and become more America. (Some did this) Indian Removal Act—government forced Natives tribes to move West away from white settlers Indian Removal Act—government forced Natives tribes to move West away from white settlers

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41 Cherokee Indians Cherokee Cherokee Wanted to stay in Georgia/create own society Wanted to stay in Georgia/create own society Went to the Supreme Court, got some basic rights, also started to assimilate Went to the Supreme Court, got some basic rights, also started to assimilate Some leaders were tricked into signing a treaty and forced to move Some leaders were tricked into signing a treaty and forced to move Trail of Tears Trail of Tears 20,000 Cherokee were forced to move from Georgia to Oklahoma (forced by troops) 20,000 Cherokee were forced to move from Georgia to Oklahoma (forced by troops) Federal officials stole most of the things the Cherokee had Federal officials stole most of the things the Cherokee had A very high percentage of Cherokee died on this trip A very high percentage of Cherokee died on this trip

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43 Daniel Webster vs John Calhoun Webster (Mass--Sen) vs Calhoun (VP SC) Webster (Mass--Sen) vs Calhoun (VP SC) Argued over states rights and financial issues Argued over states rights and financial issues Calhoun was upset about tariffs that were hurting South Calhoun was upset about tariffs that were hurting South Calhoun argued that laws that hurt one state were unconstitutional Calhoun argued that laws that hurt one state were unconstitutional Calhoun said that SC would not pay any more tariffs and threatened to leave the United States. Calhoun said that SC would not pay any more tariffs and threatened to leave the United States. Jackson’s Response Jackson’s Response He was mad, had congress pass the Force Bill (President could take any steps necessary in enforce a law) He was mad, had congress pass the Force Bill (President could take any steps necessary in enforce a law) Jackson tended to act like a king from time to time Jackson tended to act like a king from time to time

44 New Political Landscape Whig Party Whig Party Created by Democrats who were upset with Jackson Created by Democrats who were upset with Jackson Wanted government control and unity Wanted government control and unity Martin Van Buren Martin Van Buren Jackson’s VP (after Calhoun), was able to win the 1836 Presidential Election. Had to deal with the Panic of 1837 caused by Jackson’s bad economic policies Jackson’s VP (after Calhoun), was able to win the 1836 Presidential Election. Had to deal with the Panic of 1837 caused by Jackson’s bad economic policies William Henry Harrison (Whig) 1840 William Henry Harrison (Whig) 1840 Old war veteran that everyone liked…able to defeat Van Buren Old war veteran that everyone liked…able to defeat Van Buren Used modern slogans and campaign techniques Used modern slogans and campaign techniques Died a month into being president Died a month into being president John Tyler (Whig) John Tyler (Whig) Harrison’s VP….Whigs chose him only b/c he was from South Harrison’s VP….Whigs chose him only b/c he was from South Tyler and the Whig party hated each other..not good president Tyler and the Whig party hated each other..not good president

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