2Contents I. Introduction II. The organs of speech III. English Speech SoundsIV. Sounds in Connected SpeechV. Intonation
3I. IntroductionThe importance of phonetic studyA) Phonetics is the science and study of speech sounds ( sounds made by human speech organs representing meaning ). It deals with the sound system of a language.Phonetics is a branch of linguistics: phonetics, vocabulary and grammar.Speech sound is the basic element for word + grammar to rely on.(To learn any spoken language, the first step is to learn the basic sounds. )
4a): Relations between speech sound + word i) sound affects the formation of wordsDescribe---description five----fifteen twelve----twelfth(onomatopoeia)cackle quack honk twitter chirp grunt roar giggle blabsoup slurp sip slop sloppy slobii) Sounds + irregular verb form change/e/ in original form, no change in other 2 past forms.E.g. Bet bet bet let let let upset upset upsetSpread spread spread
5/ i :/ in origin form, / i :/ is changed into /e / in other forms E.g. Meet met met feed fed fed lead led ledLeave left left keep kept kept read read readSleep slept slept feel felt felt sweep swept sweptVerbs with /d / in original form, d changed into / t /E g. Send sent sent bend bent bent lend lent lentSpend spent spent build built built
6/ / in original verb forms, vowels changed into / / or / /E g. Sing sang sang ring rang rangsink sank sank Swin swam swamdrink drank drunk spring sprang sprungBegin began begun swing swung swungsling slug slung Fling flung flungwring wrung wrung
10iii) Relations between sound and grammar. Sounds determine parts of speechdesert desertinsult insultrecord recordconduct conductcontent contentpresent presentclose close bow bowlead lead tear tear
11verb tenseread readnumber of nounsman menb) A need in communication.i) Intonation:___Yes, Madam ?___ I want a piece of soap.___ It’s going to rain, isn’t it ?
12ii) the difference between oral language and written language, the distance between sound and transcription:Pick it up. [ pi i tp ]Think it over.You should have told us.Not at all.Did you eat yet?
13c) A need for further study 2.Ways to learn phonetics more practicemore listeningmore imitationsto know the basic rules (how each sound is formed, stress, linking, rhythm, pauses, intonation and etc.)
143.Standard English pronunciation English: The most widely used language in the world ( one billion people speak English. 4 hundred million speak it as their first language. 6 hundred people speak it as a second or a foreign language. )English as native language in countries: British, America, Canada, New Zealand, Ireland, South Africa, AustraliaEnglish as second language in countries: ChinaEnglish as official language in: India, Singapore, the Philippines, GhanaEnglish as working language in the United Nations:Permanent members: UK, China, France, USA, Russia
15It’s pronunciation varies in different geographical areas, so it has dialects and accents, such as General American (GA), General British (GB)RP (received pronunciation): based on the London dialect, used by educated people in southern England, used by the announcers of BBC, also widely used through English-speaking countries. So, it has been accepted everywhere for the teaching of English to foreigners.
164. Basic sounds + phonetic transcription Basic sound: the smallest phonetic unit of languageEg. Sea / :/ composed of 2 sounds: // + /:/The functions of basic sounds:a) distinguish word meaningEg. Bed bad bidb) distinguish grammatical formE g. Man men work works
17Basic sounds are distinctive. Any language has a vast number of speech sounds, yet basic sound are limited in number. In English there are 44 basic sounds in all.
18Phonetic Transcription 26 English letters 44 basic soundsletters + basic soundsa) one sound spelt in different ways/:/ read sea people machine believe receive we key quayb) same spelling, different pronunciationsbough, although cough enough through broughtc) silent lettersclimb knot autumn island
19d) same spelling, different meanings, different pronunciations desert desert lead lead bow bow tear teare) words spelt in different ways have the same pronunciationpiece peace knot not site cite sea see
205. International Phonetic Alphabet Characteristics: each symbol represents one sound and not any otherOne sound must be represented by one symbol —// //6. Two types of transcription:Broad transcription: uses a simple set of symbols just to represent the phonemes of a language without ambiguityNarrow transcription: uses symbol and diacritics to denote particular allophones of phonemes