Presentation on theme: "Healthy Snacks for Healthy Kids Lora Heatwole and Jody Alvarez Health and Physical Activity Institute James Madison University July 21, 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Healthy Snacks for Healthy Kids Lora Heatwole and Jody Alvarez Health and Physical Activity Institute James Madison University July 21, 2008
Children have different needs... Sweat at a lower rate Tolerate temperature extremes less efficiently Get hotter during exercise Have more skin surface for their body weight (that results in excessive heat gain in extreme heat and heat loss in extreme cold) Have hearts that pump less blood Adjust more slowly to exercising in the heat a child may require five or six sessions to achieve the same degree of acclimatization acquired by an adult in two or three sessions in the same environment).
Individuals have different needs... Age Weight Climate Exercise intensity and duration Hydration before exercise begins
General Guidelines for Children Children should drink before, during, and after activity Children should be reminded to drink 5-9 ounces every 20 minutes (depending on weight – teenagers should drink more) during activity Young children should have a water bottle with marks showing how much they should drink
Questions to Consider... What is “Activity?” Drink what?
Activity Activity: from Merriam - Webster 1) the state of being active 2) vigorous or energetic action
Activity How much time do your students spend being truly “active?” John Crawley, a researcher from Cornell released a study stating that high school gym students spend an average of 16 minutes being active during gym class. How does this differ from other grade levels?
What Not to Drink Vitamin water, fitness water, or enhanced water can add extra calories, artificial sweeteners, caffeine, or herbal ingredients There are few studies on the effects of herbal products and children
What Not to Drink Energy drinks may be the “cool” thing for middle and high school students/athletes Are high in caffeine which can lead to jitteriness, headaches, and frequent urination Are high in sugar which can lead to weight gain and dental problems May have other ingredients such as herbal supplements and amino acids that may have unknown effects
What Not to Drink Fruit drinks and juices may contain added sugar and be so processed that they are left with very little nutrition Can lead to dental problems and weight gain High amounts of fructose may cause an upset stomach
What Not to Drink Soda is not recommended due to the high amounts of sugar and caffeine Carbonated beverages may cause an upset stomach High amounts of sugar can lead to weight gain Caffeine acts as a diuretic and may cause dehydration instead of preventing it
What to Drink Water is the best way for children to replace lost fluids following activity lasting less than 90 minutes Does not contain any sugar that will cause a rise in blood sugar or weight gain over time Children get plenty of electrolytes from the food they eat
What to Drink Sports drinks may be beneficial for activity lasting more than 60-90 minutes If a sports drink is used for rehydration, choose one with 4-8% carbohydrate – higher loads of sugar can cause an upset stomach and slow the absorption of fluid
What to Drink To determine the percentage of carbohydrate in a sports drink: (# of gm of CHO X 100) / total ml = % carbohydrate Example: 1 cup regular cola has 27 grams carbohydrate 27 X 100 = 2700 2700/240 ml = 11.25% CHO
Fluid Replacement Water No added “extras” which may have a negative effect on the child Child may drink less due to lack of flavor Readily available Free Sports Drinks Has electrolytes which may be beneficial in exercise lasting more than 60-90 minutes Has flavor which encourages child to drink more One 20 oz. sports drink per day can lead to a 13 lb weight gain in a year’s time
Fluid Replacement There is some evidence that unless children are exercising in extreme conditions or longer than 5-6 hours, the amount of electrolytes lost is not significant and does not need to be replaced by a sports drink.
General Guidelines Age GroupTotal Water (Cups) Water from Beverages Water from Foods Children 1-35 ½41 ½ Children 4-8752 Girls 9-13972 Boys 9-131082 Girls 14-181082 Boys 14-1814113
Snacks to Hydrate Foods with a high water content include fresh fruits and vegetables, milk, yogurt, and soups Fruit also contains fructose which may cause an upset stomach when playing sports A salty snack such as celery or cheese may increase a child’s thirst and fluid intake
Snacks to Hydrate Fruit Kabobs Celery or Apples with Peanut butter Cucumber sticks in vanilla yogurt Cherry tomatoes Soup
Wellness Programs Promote healthy items in vending machines Promote healthy foods and increase nutritional knowledge among students Price it out for them Childhood obesity is partly our responsibility
Performance Bars Cereal Bars Diet Bars Protein Bars Energy Bars
What to look for in a QUALITY Product Consider activity level Type and amount of fat Complex vs. Refined Carbohydrates More than 2.5g of Fiber
Lets Look at a Label Hint: Common among athletes Lance Armstrong and Michael Phelps are among some of the spokesmen Calories240 Calories from fat 35 Total Fat4 g 6% Saturated.5g 3% Trans 0g Total CHO42g 14% Fiber 2g 9% Sugar 22g Protein10g 20%
References Atkins, V. et al. Frequently Asked Questions About Sports Drinks. Center for Weight and Health, UC Berkley. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/cwh/PDFs/CWH_Sports_Drinks_ FAQ_Sheet_7.07.pdf Gavin,M. (2008,April). Power Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? Kids Health For Parents. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from http://kidshealth.org/parent/food/general/power_drinks.html Texas Cooperative Extension. (2004,November). The Importance of Hydration During Physical Activity. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from http://fcs.tamu.edu/food_and_nutrition/nutrifacts/issue6.pdf http://fcs.tamu.edu/food_and_nutrition/nutrifacts/issue6.pdf www.powerbar.com www.kashi.com www.met-rx.com www.kidshealth.org_cerealbars “Kids and On-the-Go Nutrition” Mary L Gavin MD April 2008 www.kidshealth.org_cerealbars