Presentation on theme: "Pollution takes its toll on marathon field Twenty-two people were sent to hospital yesterday, two remaining in critical condition last night, after."— Presentation transcript:
Pollution takes its toll on marathon field Twenty-two people were sent to hospital yesterday, two remaining in critical condition last night, after taking part in Hong Kong's biggest marathon amid the worst air pollution since September. Many of the record 40,000 runners complained the "choking" air affected their performance in the 10th annual Standard Chartered Hong Kong Marathon, half-marathon and 10km events.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS, CONSEQUENCES, AND INTERRELATIONS
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion October 1999 (average) Historically, the Antarctic ozone hole is largest during October. This image shows the data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Earth Probe, for the month of October 1999. September 17th 2001 Satellite data show the area of the 2001 Antarctic ozone hole peaked at a size roughly equal to that of recent years about the same area as North America. Researchers have observed a levelling- off of the hole size and predict a slow recovery.
Carrying Capacity The maximum number of individuals of a species that can be sustained by an environment without decreasing the capacity of the environment to sustain that same amount in the future.
Compartments and Pollution/Extraction Air: emissions, GHGs, ozone loss, abrading, offgassing, noise Water: Nutrient BOD, chemical emissions, pharmaceuticals, underground leaking, air fallout Land: landfill, hazardous and nuclear waste, abrading, soil erosion Biosphere (life): habitat destruction, alien species, exploitation, global warming, pollutants
HK Alien Species Mikania micrantha Water Dragon Fire Ants
Consequences Human Health Human Wealth Nature’s Health
Human Health Toxins: heavy metals,organic compounds, particulates, oxides. Carcinogens Radiation Noise UV radiation Global warming>>disease increase Stress
Human Wealth Resource depletion: renewable and nonrenewable resources Environmental degradation: ecosystem services Economic and social disruptions
Nature’s Health Pollution: birth rate, death rate, distribution, growth rate abundance Loss of space and habitat destruction Biogeochemical balance upset Ecological balance upset by biodiversity loss
Interrelationships Of Environmental Problems Sources, sinks and flows Point and area origins Space and time dimensions Synergistic and cumulative affects
Environmental impact of petrochemical industry Air: noxious and toxic emissions from refining, processing plants Water: factory emissions to water bodies Land: landfill disposal of waste solids & sludge; accidental spills during transport & storage Human:toxicity and disruption of lifestyle
Environmental impact of metal industry Air: particulate, gas emissions during forging, working, fabrication Water: discharge of pickling liquors & other waste disposal; heavy metals Land: slag, waste products from processing Human:toxicity
Environmental impact of mining industry Air: particulates from surface mining & transportation; noxious & toxic fumes from smelting Water: runoff from mines and waste disposal Land: dumping of tailings & processed wastes; disruption of agriculture, forestry, recreation Human: heavy metals, particulates
Environmental impact of food industry Air: noxious fumes from food processing Water: sewage with high organic content Land: uncomposted organics and other wastes to landfill
Environmental impact of agriculture industry Air: drift of agricultural chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, fertilizers), pollen, & dust Water: runoff of agrochemicals to surface waters; percolation to groundwater; silting of water Land: erosion, depletion of organic material & organisms Human: toxicity of chemical; loss of soil
Environmental impact of pulp & paper industry Air: noxious fumes Water: emissions of mercury, chlorines, organics; silt from deforestation; loss of habitat Land: destruction of habitat by clear-cutting; erosion Human: mercury contaminated seafood
Wastes generated from manufacture of common products Plastics: organic chlorine compounds, organic solvents Pesticides; organic chlorine compounds, organic phosphate compounds Medicines: organic solvents and residues, heavy metals Paints: heavy metals, pigments, solvents, organic residues Petroleum products: oil, phenols, organic compounds, heavy metals, ammonia, salt acids, caustics Metals: heavy metals, fluorides, cyanides, acid and alkaline cleaners, solvents, pigments, abrasives, plating salts, oils, phenols Leather; heavy metals, organic solvents Textiles: heavy metals, dyes, organic chlorine, compounds, solvents.
Product, Material, & Energy Flow in an Industry Resource Extraction Materials Processing Parts Manufacture Product Assembly Distribution Consumption Materials Collection Recycling Social Infrastructure: Gov’t, industry assoc.s, NGOs, etc. Material & Energy Inputs Pollution Outputs Physical Infrastructure: roads, sewers, land use, electricity, etc.