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Imperialism Alliances War

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1 Imperialism Alliances War
Chapter 26 Imperialism Alliances War

2 You got some and I want some, too.
Imperialism You got some and I want some, too.

3 These factors made it possible for Europeans to impose their will on other peoples in the late 19th century

4 Technological superiority
Factors: Technological superiority Confidence in their rightness of purpose & way of life Centrally organize nation-states

5 New Imperialism Capital investments
Transform local economies & cultures Annexation? Direct rule? Less industrialized countries Develop mines, railroads, bridges, harbors, communication systems

6 Motives for New Imperialism
Strategic considerations Political considerations

7 Chief advocates of the economic interpretation of imperialism
Vladimir Lenin J. A. Hobson

8 European nations must civilize foreign lands
Argued most strongly European nations must civilize foreign lands Religious groups

9 Scramble for Africa (transparency)
An inaccessible continent Only coastal areas to 1800 Portuguese first Stanley & Livingstone Leopold II (Belgium) becomes a player FranceAlgeria, Morocco, Tunisia GB grabs Suez 1880s

10 Germany in Africa German imperialism centered in EAST Africa
Bismarck—improve Germany's diplomatic position in Europe Congress of Berlin

11 African Resistance Samori Toure (Mandinka) fought French in West Africa Queen Yaa Asatewa (Asante) fought the British (1896) K. Menelik II (Ethiopia) defeated Italy in Battle of Adowa Zulu, Matabele, Mashone in Southern Rhodesia (1890s)

12 By 1900, all but Ethiopia & Liberia have been colonized

13 Imperialist methods of governing
Europe could not afford to support colonies Direct rule Indirect rule Proprietary Day – to – day effect is same

14 Impact on African societies
Missionaries collaborated with colonists against African interests Moroccan Crises Fashoda Crisis Boer War & Union of South Africa ( ) “settler” colonies “economic” colonies Clan & village relations disrupted & destroyed Infrastructure built to serve exploitation NOT development

15 Other areas (transparency)
Far East—Japan, China India Indonesia ONE BIG GAME OF “RISK” ™

16 Opposed the idea of further political interference in other lands
Great Britain Opposed the idea of further political interference in other lands Economic interference was OK Did bring benefits to Britain’s colonies

17 Japan “Open Door Policy”
Allowed businessmen to trade w/ Japan on equal terms

18 Freed the Slavic states in the Balkans from Ottoman rule
Treaty of San Stephano Freed the Slavic states in the Balkans from Ottoman rule Where are the Balkans?

19 Congress of Berlin 1878 Check Russia’s intervention in the Slavic & Ottoman affairs Was a blow to Russian ambitions—lost potential & actual territories Met under Bismarck’s leadership INFLUENCE

20 “Jingoism” Super-patriotism “We don’t want to fight, But by jingo if we do, We’ve got the men, We’ve got the ships, We’ve got the money too. The Russians will not have Constantinople!”

21 “Let’s you and me gang up on the other guy…”
Alliances “Let’s you and me gang up on the other guy…”

22 Bismarck & Alliances Complicated system of secret alliances
“honest broker” Wanted no new territory (Europe) & preserve peace Nemesis—William II

23 Dual Alliance 1879 Germany & Austria would come to each other’s aid if either were attacked by Russia (WWI) If either were attacked by another country—maintain neutrality Sought to isolate Russia

24 Italy—didn’t want to be left out
Triple Alliance Germany Austria Italy—didn’t want to be left out

25 Bismarck’s complicated system of alliances was upset by the accession of William II to the German throne….

26 William II (Germany) “world policy” Ruled by divine right
Germany—leading power of Europe Victoria’s grandson Goofed when he fired Bismarck “world policy”

27 Otto von Bismarck—legacy
Clear & limited idea of nation’s goals Resistance to pressures for European expansion Knowledge of other countries’ needs & hopes

28 A force for unity & European stability
Peace through strength

29 More William II Hired Gen. Leo von Caprivi as chancellor
Germany is enemy of GB—colonialism Facing Franco-Russian alliance--defensive Caprivi wants to ally w/GB GB is fulcrum to balance of power

30 William II Envies & loves GB—wants navy Admiral Tirpitz—risk theory
Germany can build a big enough fleet to do enough damage to make the British navy inferior to other powers. Not so much a war threat “Anything you can do, we can do better!”

31 Entente Cordiale GB & France France & Russia
Not a formal treaty—patched up colonial differences (GB & Fr) Russia? Didn’t GB side w/Japan 1904/5? Fear of Germany makes strange bedfellows….zzzz

32 Triple Entente Vs. Triple Alliance Triple Entente 1907 Great Britain
France Russia Triple Entente Vs. Triple Alliance

33 Possible 2 front war with France & Russia
Bismarck’s nightmare Possible 2 front war with France & Russia

34 ~ Germany needed a contingency plan for a two-front war ~ Schlieffen Plan (WWI)

35 A brief look at the Russian Revolution & the Provisional Government
Dr. Zhivago A brief look at the Russian Revolution & the Provisional Government

36 The Outbreak of the Russian Revolution (p.916-917)
Let’s take a look at this document

37 Russian miscellany Provisional Government—Duma w/ Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) Soviet—council of workers/soldiers Organized by Mensheviks—needed the bourgeois before the proletariat revolution could be achieved Alexander Kerensky—moderate socialist Took over leadership of Provisional Govt.

38 Provisional Government
Failed in Russia in 1917 Disillusionment with the War Provisional govt. continued to support it Shortage of food Growing demand by peasants for land reform

39 Vladimir Lenin--Bolshevik
German intervention Saw opportunity to ally peasants & workers More/less failure Fled to Finland Leon Trotsky (collaborator) jailed Force of personality Charisma

40 Bolshevik Success Right-wing countercoup against P.G.—failed
Opportunity for Trotsky—Petrograd soviet Lenin back Trotsky organized coup—Nov6—bloody Bolsheviks rule Russia

41 Bolshevik (Communist) Dictatorship
Nationalized land—gave to peasant proprietors Church property nationalized RUSSIA OUT OF WWI Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918 Yielded Poland, Baltic states, Ukraine Pay many rubles (war indemnity)

42 1918-1921 Civil War “Reds” v. “Whites” Reds supported Revolution
White opposed Revolution/supported the Czar

43 1918 Czar Nicholas II & family murdered No going back
Trade one absolute ruler for another

44 By 1921 Lenin and his supporters were in firm control of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

45 Kinda, maybe, sorta Or Previews of coming attractions….
Peace? Kinda, maybe, sorta Or Previews of coming attractions….

46 German defeat German army disintegrated—William II abdicated—Nov. 9, 1918 Germany defeated? How? No foreign troops on German soil… Germans expected a negotiated & mild settlement “Gee, golly whiz! We’re sorry!”

47 Changes withIN/withOUT Europe
Fascism Inevitable progress based on reason, science & technologygave way to cynicism, nihilism, dictatorship, official racism, class warfare Europe no longer the center of the world

48 Peacemakers Obstacles Compromise difficult Nationalism
Limited secret sessions Public opinion Wilson’s idealism Compromise difficult Nationalism Redraw map of Europe? How?

49 World turmoil Fear of the spread of Bolshevism
Bavaria Hungary Fear of Germany (France)

50 A mixture of idealism & cynicism
Treaty of Versailles A mixture of idealism & cynicism

51 BIG 4 Treaty of Versailles Woodrow Wilson David Lloyd George
Georges Clemenceau Vittorio Emanuele Orlando

52 Woodrow Wilson--USA Fourteen Points
…rights of nationalities to self-determination Absolute value Difficulties League of Nations

53 Peace settlement (ToV)
5 treaties “Open covenants openly arrived at” Yeah, right! Germany presented with treaty Dictated--Non negotiated Peace without victors Excluded USSR & Germany Wilson—forces of reality

54 Colonies? Colonial areasmandates Encouraged toward independence
Actually little advance made

55 Provisions of Treaty of Versailles
Germany Reduction of force 100,000 men army Navycoastal defense force only No heavy weapons Territorial concessions $5 Billion payments to Allies (GB, Fr.) annually Ensure France’s safety US guarantee aid to France if attacked

56 Germany? Didn’t accept sole responsibility for war
Lost territories w/ natural resources Were required to admit guilt Forced to accept total treaty Social Democrats & Catholic Center Party formed new government—representatives accepted Treaty Weimar Republic (govt. until 1933)

57 Provisions of Treaty of Versailles
Austria-Hungary disappeared 5 states Austria Hungary Czechoslovakia (Slovaks, Czechs, Ruthenians) Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats, Slovenes) Romania

58 Impact of Peace Weimar Republic blamed for terms of Treaty
France wants security from Germany & Rhineland Germany shamed & overburdened Britain & USA isolationist Eastern Europe is economic & nationalist mess

59 It was not a peace without victors
It was not a peace without victors. It did not put an end to imperialism, but attempted to promote the national interests of the winning nations. It violated the principles of national self-determination by leaving significant pockets of minorities outside the borders of their national homelands. KOT 925

60 Greatest weakness of the peace was its failure to accept reality
Greatest weakness of the peace was its failure to accept reality. Germany & USSR must play an important part in European affairs—yet were excluded from the settlement & the League of Nations. (KOT 925)

61 The tragedy of the Treaty of Versailles was that it was neither conciliatory enough to remove the desire for change, even at the cost of war, nor harsh enough to make another war impossible. KOT 926








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