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Chapter 26 ImperialismAlliancesWar. Imperialism You got some and I want some, too.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 ImperialismAlliancesWar. Imperialism You got some and I want some, too."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 26 ImperialismAlliancesWar

2 Imperialism You got some and I want some, too.

3 These factors made it possible for Europeans to impose their will on other peoples in the late 19 th century 

4 Factors: Technological superiority Technological superiority Confidence in their rightness of purpose & way of life Confidence in their rightness of purpose & way of life Centrally organize nation- states Centrally organize nation- states

5 New Imperialism Capital investments Capital investments Transform local economies & cultures Transform local economies & cultures Annexation? Annexation? Direct rule? Direct rule? Less industrialized countries Less industrialized countries Develop mines, railroads, bridges, harbors, communication systems Develop mines, railroads, bridges, harbors, communication systems

6 Motives for New Imperialism Strategic considerations Strategic considerations Political considerations Political considerations

7 Chief advocates of the economic interpretation of imperialism Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Lenin J. A. Hobson J. A. Hobson

8 Religious groups Argued most strongly European nations must civilize foreign lands

9 Scramble for Africa (transparency) An inaccessible continent An inaccessible continent Only coastal areas to 1800 Only coastal areas to 1800 Portuguese first Portuguese first Stanley & Livingstone Stanley & Livingstone Leopold II (Belgium) becomes a player Leopold II (Belgium) becomes a player France  Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia France  Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia GB grabs Suez 1880s GB grabs Suez 1880s

10 Germany in Africa German imperialism centered in EAST Africa Bismarck—improve Germany's diplomatic position in Europe Congress of Berlin

11 African Resistance Samori Toure (Mandinka) fought French in West Africa Samori Toure (Mandinka) fought French in West Africa Queen Yaa Asatewa (Asante) fought the British (1896) Queen Yaa Asatewa (Asante) fought the British (1896) K. Menelik II (Ethiopia) defeated Italy in Battle of Adowa K. Menelik II (Ethiopia) defeated Italy in Battle of Adowa Zulu, Matabele, Mashone in Southern Rhodesia (1890s) Zulu, Matabele, Mashone in Southern Rhodesia (1890s)

12 By 1900, all but Ethiopia & Liberia have been colonized

13 Imperialist methods of governing Europe could not afford to support colonies Europe could not afford to support colonies Direct rule Direct rule Indirect rule Indirect rule Proprietary Proprietary Day – to – day effect is same Day – to – day effect is same

14 Impact on African societies “settler” colonies “settler” colonies “economic” colonies “economic” colonies Clan & village relations disrupted & destroyed Clan & village relations disrupted & destroyed Infrastructure built to serve exploitation NOT development Infrastructure built to serve exploitation NOT development Missionaries collaborated with colonists against African interests Moroccan Crises Fashoda Crisis Boer War & Union of South Africa ( )

15 Other areas (transparency) Far East—Japan, China Far East—Japan, China India India Indonesia Indonesia ONE BIG GAME OF “RISK” ™ ONE BIG GAME OF “RISK” ™

16 Great Britain the idea of further political interference in other lands Opposed the idea of further political interference in other lands Economic interference was OK Economic interference was OK Did bring benefits to Britain’s colonies Did bring benefits to Britain’s colonies

17 Japan “Open Door Policy” “Open Door Policy” Allowed businessmen to trade w/ Japan on equal terms Allowed businessmen to trade w/ Japan on equal terms

18 Treaty of San Stephano Freed the Slavic states in the Balkans from Ottoman rule Freed the Slavic states in the Balkans from Ottoman rule Where are the Balkans? Where are the Balkans?

19 Congress of Berlin 1878 Check Russia’s intervention in the Slavic & Ottoman affairs Check Russia’s intervention in the Slavic & Ottoman affairs Was a blow to Russian ambitions—lost potential & actual territories Was a blow to Russian ambitions—lost potential & actual territories Met under Bismarck’s leadership Met under Bismarck’s leadership INFLUENCE INFLUENCE

20 “Jingoism” Super-patriotism “We don’t want to fight, But by jingo if we do, We’ve got the men, We’ve got the ships, We’ve got the money too. The Russians will not have Constantinople!”

21 Alliances “Let’s you and me gang up on the other guy…”

22 Bismarck & Alliances Complicated system of secret alliances “honest broker” Wanted no new territory (Europe) & preserve peace Nemesis—William II

23 Dual Alliance 1879 Germany & Austria would come to each other’s aid if either were attacked by Russia (WWI) Germany & Austria would come to each other’s aid if either were attacked by Russia (WWI) If either were attacked by another country—maintain neutrality If either were attacked by another country—maintain neutrality Sought to isolate Russia Sought to isolate Russia

24 Triple Alliance Germany Germany Austria Austria Italy —didn’t want to be left out Italy —didn’t want to be left out

25 Bismarck’s complicated system of alliances was upset by the accession of William II to the German throne….

26 William II (Germany) Ruled by divine right Germany—leading power of Europe Victoria’s grandson Goofed when he fired Bismarck “world policy”

27 Otto von Bismarck—legacy Clear & limited idea of nation’s goals Resistance to pressures for European expansion Knowledge of other countries’ needs & hopes

28 A force for unity & European stability A force for unity & European stability Peace through strength Peace through strength

29 More William II Hired Gen. Leo von Caprivi as chancellor Germany is enemy of GB— colonialism Facing Franco-Russian alliance--defensive Caprivi wants to ally w/GB GB is fulcrum to balance of power

30 William II Envies & loves GB—wants navy Envies & loves GB—wants navy Admiral Tirpitz—risk theory Admiral Tirpitz—risk theory Germany can build a big enough fleet to do enough damage to make the British navy inferior to other powers. Germany can build a big enough fleet to do enough damage to make the British navy inferior to other powers. Not so much a war threat Not so much a war threat “Anything you can do, we can do better!” “Anything you can do, we can do better!”

31 Entente Cordiale GB & France GB & France France & Russia France & Russia Not a formal treaty—patched up colonial differences (GB & Fr) Not a formal treaty—patched up colonial differences (GB & Fr) Russia? Didn’t GB side w/Japan 1904/5? Russia? Didn’t GB side w/Japan 1904/5? Fear of Germany makes strange bedfellows….zzzz Fear of Germany makes strange bedfellows….zzzz

32 Triple Entente 1907 Great Britain Great Britain France France Russia Russia Triple Entente Vs. Triple Alliance

33 Bismarck’s nightmare Possible 2 front war with France & Russia

34 ~ Germany needed a contingency plan for a two-front war ~ Schlieffen Plan (WWI)

35 Dr. Zhivago A brief look at the Russian Revolution & the Provisional Government

36 The Outbreak of the Russian Revolution (p ) Let’s take a look at this document

37 Russian miscellany Provisional Government—Duma w/ Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) Provisional Government—Duma w/ Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) Soviet—council of workers/soldiers Soviet—council of workers/soldiers Organized by Mensheviks —needed the bourgeois before the proletariat revolution could be achieved Organized by Mensheviks —needed the bourgeois before the proletariat revolution could be achieved Alexander Kerensky—moderate socialist Alexander Kerensky—moderate socialist Took over leadership of Provisional Govt. Took over leadership of Provisional Govt.

38 Provisional Government Failed in Russia in 1917 Failed in Russia in 1917 Disillusionment with the War Disillusionment with the War Provisional govt. continued to support it Provisional govt. continued to support it Shortage of food Shortage of food Growing demand by peasants for land reform Growing demand by peasants for land reform

39 Vladimir Lenin--Bolshevik German intervention Saw opportunity to ally peasants & workers More/less failure Fled to Finland Leon Trotsky (collaborator) jailed Force of personality Charisma

40 Bolshevik Success Right-wing countercoup against P.G.— failed Right-wing countercoup against P.G.— failed Opportunity for Trotsky—Petrograd soviet Opportunity for Trotsky—Petrograd soviet Lenin back Lenin back Trotsky organized coup—Nov6—bloody Trotsky organized coup—Nov6—bloody Bolsheviks rule Russia Bolsheviks rule Russia

41 Bolshevik (Communist) Dictatorship Nationalized land—gave to peasant proprietors Nationalized land—gave to peasant proprietors Church property nationalized Church property nationalized RUSSIA OUT OF WWI RUSSIA OUT OF WWI Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918 Yielded Poland, Baltic states, Ukraine Yielded Poland, Baltic states, Ukraine Pay many rubles (war indemnity) Pay many rubles (war indemnity)

42 Civil War “Reds” v. “Whites” “Reds” v. “Whites” Reds supported Revolution Reds supported Revolution White opposed Revolution/supported the Czar White opposed Revolution/supported the Czar

43 1918 Czar Nicholas II & family murdered No going back Trade one absolute ruler for another

44 By 1921 Lenin and his supporters were in firm control of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

45 Peace? Kinda, maybe, sorta Or Previews of coming attractions….

46 German defeat German army disintegrated—William II abdicated—Nov. 9, 1918 German army disintegrated—William II abdicated—Nov. 9, 1918 Germany defeated? How? No foreign troops on German soil… Germany defeated? How? No foreign troops on German soil… Germans expected a negotiated & mild settlement Germans expected a negotiated & mild settlement “Gee, golly whiz! We’re sorry!” “Gee, golly whiz! We’re sorry!”

47 Changes withIN/withOUT Europe Fascism Fascism Inevitable progress based on reason, science & technology  gave way to cynicism, nihilism, dictatorship, official racism, class warfare Inevitable progress based on reason, science & technology  gave way to cynicism, nihilism, dictatorship, official racism, class warfare Europe no longer the center of the world Europe no longer the center of the world

48 Peacemakers Obstacles Obstacles Limited secret sessions Limited secret sessions Public opinion Public opinion Wilson’s idealism Wilson’s idealism Compromise difficult Compromise difficult Nationalism Nationalism Redraw map of Europe? How? Redraw map of Europe? How?

49 World turmoil Fear of the spread of Bolshevism Fear of the spread of Bolshevism Bavaria Bavaria Hungary Hungary Fear of Germany (France) Fear of Germany (France)

50 Treaty of Versailles A mixture of idealism & cynicism

51 Treaty of Versailles BIG 4 BIG 4 Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson David Lloyd George David Lloyd George Georges Clemenceau Georges Clemenceau Vittorio Emanuele Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando

52 Woodrow Wilson--USA Fourteen Points …rights of nationalities to self-determination Absolute value Difficulties League of Nations

53 Peace settlement (ToV) 5 treaties 5 treaties “Open covenants openly arrived at” “Open covenants openly arrived at” Yeah, right! Yeah, right! Germany presented with treaty Germany presented with treaty Dictated--Non negotiated Dictated--Non negotiated Peace without victors Peace without victors Excluded USSR & Germany Excluded USSR & Germany Wilson—forces of reality Wilson—forces of reality

54 Colonies? Colonial areas  mandates Colonial areas  mandates Encouraged toward independence Encouraged toward independence Actually little advance made Actually little advance made

55 Provisions of Treaty of Versailles Germany Germany Reduction of force Reduction of force 100,000 men army 100,000 men army Navy  coastal defense force only Navy  coastal defense force only No heavy weapons No heavy weapons Territorial concessions Territorial concessions $5 Billion payments to Allies (GB, Fr.) annually $5 Billion payments to Allies (GB, Fr.) annually Ensure France’s safety Ensure France’s safety US guarantee aid to France if attacked US guarantee aid to France if attacked

56 Germany? Didn’t accept sole responsibility for war Didn’t accept sole responsibility for war Lost territories w/ natural resources Lost territories w/ natural resources Were required to admit guilt Were required to admit guilt Forced to accept total treaty Forced to accept total treaty Social Democrats & Catholic Center Party formed new government—representatives accepted Treaty Social Democrats & Catholic Center Party formed new government—representatives accepted Treaty Weimar Republic (govt. until 1933) Weimar Republic (govt. until 1933)

57 Provisions of Treaty of Versailles Austria-Hungary disappeared Austria-Hungary disappeared 5 states 5 states Austria Austria Hungary Hungary Czechoslovakia (Slovaks, Czechs, Ruthenians) Czechoslovakia (Slovaks, Czechs, Ruthenians) Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats, Slovenes) Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats, Slovenes) Romania Romania

58 Impact of Peace Weimar Republic blamed for terms of Treaty Weimar Republic blamed for terms of Treaty France wants security from Germany & Rhineland France wants security from Germany & Rhineland Germany shamed & overburdened Germany shamed & overburdened Britain & USA isolationist Britain & USA isolationist Eastern Europe is economic & nationalist mess Eastern Europe is economic & nationalist mess

59 It was not a peace without victors. It did not put an end to imperialism, but attempted to promote the national interests of the winning nations. It violated the principles of national self-determination by leaving significant pockets of minorities outside the borders of their national homelands. KOT 925

60 Greatest weakness of the peace was its failure to accept reality. Germany & USSR must play an important part in European affairs—yet were excluded from the settlement & the League of Nations. (KOT 925)

61 The tragedy of the Treaty of Versailles was that it was neither conciliatory enough to remove the desire for change, even at the cost of war, nor harsh enough to make another war impossible. KOT 926

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