Essential Question Why did Texans fight for their independence from Mexico?
Conflict Over Texas Conflict began in 1803 Louisiana Purchase- Americans claimed land in present day Texas Spain protested In the Adams-Onis Treaty the US agreed to drop its claim to this region
Land Grants Few people lived in Texas TejanosMost were Tejanos (Mexicans living in Texas) Native Americans (Comanches, Apaches, and Kiowas) also lived in this area The Spanish offered large amounts of land to people who agreed to bring families to settle there empresariosThe people who received this land and recruited the settlers were called empresarios
More Land Grants American Moses Austin received the first land grant in 1821 establishMoses Austin died before he could establish his colony Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821 Stephen F. AustinAustin’s son, Stephen F. Austin, received permission from the Mexican government to organize a colony 300 American families settled in Texas From 1823-1825 Mexico sold land at extremely low costs In return settlers agreed to learn Spanish, become Mexican citizens, convert to Catholicism, and obey Mexican law Most settlers came from the US
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 How did Mexico attract settlers to Texas? A.It jailed the empresarios for keeping most of the land in Texas for themselves. B.It removed all taxes on American-made goods. C.It offered land to people who agreed to settle it. D.It agreed to allow freedom of religion.
Growing Tension By 1830- There were more Americans in Texas than Mexicans Plus they did NOT adopt Mexican ways The US had twice offered to buy Texas from Mexico The Mexican government became alarmed at the American influence and passed a decree that stopped all immigration from the US Trade between Texas and the US were discouraged by placing a tax on goods imported from the US These policies angered Texans who depended on US trade and also had friends and relatives who wanted to come to Texas Slave holders in Texas were also upset at the Mexican governments plan to end slavery
Attempt at Reconciliation Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna1833- General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became the president of Mexico Stephen F. Austin traveled to Mexico City with the Texans’ demands to remove the ban on American settlers Also to make Texas a separate state of Mexico Santa Anna agreed to remove the ban on American settlers, but not on the second request Austin sent a letter to Texas suggesting plans for independence get underway The letter was intercepted and Austin was arrested
Attempt at Reconciliation Continued Austin was in jail Santa Anna named himself dictator and overthrew Mexico’s constitution in 1824 Santa Anna placed Texas under greater control The Texans’ lost all power Austin was released from prison and saw that dealing with Santa Anna was impossible He knew war was inevitable
The Struggle for Independence 1835- unrest among Texans sometime resulted in fighting Santa Anna sent an army to punish the rebels In October- Some Mexican troops tried to seize a cannon held by the Texans in Gonzales The Texans taunted them with a white flag that said “Come and Take It” After a brief battle, the Mexicans were driven back Texans considered this the first fight of the Texas Revolution Volunteers joined (including Tejanos and African Americans) December 1835- Texans freed San Antonio from a larger Mexican force
The Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna was furious and marched north to San Antonio in February 1836 AlamoThe Texans were barricaded inside a nearby mission called the Alamo The Texans had cannons, but little gunpowder The Texans had only about 180 soldiers Santa Anna’s army had several thousand The Texans had brave leaders like Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie
More of the Battle of the Alamo The Texan commander was 26 year old William B. Travis Travis was determined to hold his position at the Alamo Travis sent messages asking for help from Texans and from the US For 12 days, The Alamo defenders kept Santa Anna at bay with rifle fire March 6, 1836- Mexican cannon fire smashed the Alamo’s walls The Mexicans entered the Alamo killing all the defenders Only a few women and children and some servants survived The defenders killed hundreds of Mexicans, but more importantly bought Texans some much needed time
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2Section 2 Why was the battle at the Alamo important to the Texans? A.The tragic loss led to their overall defeat in the war. B.Their victory at the Alamo was the turning point of the war. C.The Texans’ stand gave them much-needed time and inspiration. D.Davy Crockett became the first president of Texas.
During the Alamo Texan leaders were writing a new constitution March 2 nd, 1836- American settlers and Tejanos declared independence The Republic of Texas was established Texans could not vote because of Mexican occupation, so Texas leaders set up a temporary government Sam Houston was named commander in chief
Goliad Houston ordered troops at Goliad to abandon their position Before they could leave they were met by Mexican troops and had a fight Several hundred Texans surrendered Santa Anna ordered them all executed The Texans called it the “Goliad Massacre”
The Battle of San Jacinto Houston gathered an army of about 900 at San Jacinto (Near present day Houston) Nearby was Santa Anna with more than 1,300 April 21- Texans launched a surprise attack yelling “Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad” They killed more than 600 and captured more than 700 more (including Santa Anna) May 14, 1836- Santa Anna signed a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas
The Lone Star Republic September 1836- Sam Houston was elected president of Texas annexHouston sent delegates to Washington D.C., asking the US to annex Texas Andrew Jackson refused the request… why? Another slave state would upset the balance of slave states and free states in Congress Texas would remain an independent country… for now
Continued Difficulties Texas still had problems with Mexico Also had debt Many wanted to join the US Southerners favored Texas annexation, Northerners opposed it The slavery issue kept Texas from joining the US
1844 Election 1844 presidential campaign changed the situation Manifest Destiny was a popular idea at the time When Polk became president, Congress passed a resolution to annex Texas Texas joined the Union in 1845
Ess enti al Qu esti on Why did Texans fight for their independence from Mexico? -Americans in Texas were upset about the actions of the Mexican government, including limitations placed on immigration from the US -Taxation on US imports, which discouraged trade and hurt Texans’ livelihoods -Plans to end slavery