3 Why did Texans fight for their independence from Mexico? Essential QuestionWhy did Texans fight for their independence from Mexico?
4 Conflict Over Texas Conflict began in 1803 Louisiana Purchase- Americans claimed land in present day TexasSpain protestedIn the Adams-Onis Treaty the US agreed to drop its claim to this region
5 Land Grants Few people lived in Texas Most were Tejanos (Mexicans living in Texas)Native Americans (Comanches, Apaches, and Kiowas) also lived in this areaThe Spanish offered large amounts of land to people who agreed to bring families to settle thereThe people who received this land and recruited the settlers were called empresarios
6 More Land GrantsAmerican Moses Austin received the first land grant in 1821Moses Austin died before he could establish his colonyMexico won its independence from Spain in 1821Austin’s son, Stephen F. Austin, received permission from the Mexican government to organize a colony300 American families settled in TexasFrom Mexico sold land at extremely low costsIn return settlers agreed to learn Spanish, become Mexican citizens, convert to Catholicism, and obey Mexican lawMost settlers came from the US
7 A B C D How did Mexico attract settlers to Texas? Section 2How did Mexico attract settlers to Texas?A. It jailed the empresarios for keeping most of the land in Texas for themselves.B. It removed all taxes on American-made goods.C. It offered land to people who agreed to settle it.D. It agreed to allow freedom of religion.ABCD
8 Growing TensionBy There were more Americans in Texas than MexicansPlus they did NOT adopt Mexican waysThe US had twice offered to buy Texas from MexicoThe Mexican government became alarmed at the American influence and passed a decree that stopped all immigration from the USTrade between Texas and the US were discouraged by placing a tax on goods imported from the USThese policies angered Texans who depended on US trade and also had friends and relatives who wanted to come to TexasSlave holders in Texas were also upset at the Mexican governments plan to end slavery
9 Attempt at Reconciliation 1833- General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became the president of MexicoStephen F. Austin traveled to Mexico City with the Texans’ demands to remove the ban on American settlersAlso to make Texas a separate state of MexicoSanta Anna agreed to remove the ban on American settlers, but not on the second requestAustin sent a letter to Texas suggesting plans for independence get underwayThe letter was intercepted and Austin was arrested
10 Attempt at Reconciliation Continued Austin was in jailSanta Anna named himself dictator and overthrew Mexico’s constitution in 1824Santa Anna placed Texas under greater controlThe Texans’ lost all powerAustin was released from prison and saw that dealing with Santa Anna was impossibleHe knew war was inevitable
11 The Struggle for Independence 1835- unrest among Texans sometime resulted in fightingSanta Anna sent an army to punish the rebelsIn October- Some Mexican troops tried to seize a cannon held by the Texans in GonzalesThe Texans taunted them with a white flag that said “Come and Take It”After a brief battle, the Mexicans were driven backTexans considered this the first fight of the Texas RevolutionVolunteers joined (including Tejanos and African Americans)December Texans freed San Antonio from a larger Mexican force
12 The Battle of the AlamoSanta Anna was furious and marched north to San Antonio in February 1836The Texans were barricaded inside a nearby mission called the AlamoThe Texans had cannons, but little gunpowderThe Texans had only about 180 soldiersSanta Anna’s army had several thousandThe Texans had brave leaders like Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie
13 More of the Battle of the Alamo The Texan commander was 26 year old William B. TravisTravis was determined to hold his position at the AlamoTravis sent messages asking for help from Texans and from the USFor 12 days, The Alamo defenders kept Santa Anna at bay with rifle fireMarch 6, Mexican cannon fire smashed the Alamo’s wallsThe Mexicans entered the Alamo killing all the defendersOnly a few women and children and some servants survivedThe defenders killed hundreds of Mexicans, but more importantly bought Texans some much needed time
14 A B C D Why was the battle at the Alamo important to the Texans? Section 2Why was the battle at the Alamo important to the Texans?A. The tragic loss led to their overall defeat in the war.B. Their victory at the Alamo was the turning point of the war.C. The Texans’ stand gave them much-needed time and inspiration.D. Davy Crockett became the first president of Texas.ABCD
15 During the Alamo Texan leaders were writing a new constitution March 2nd, American settlers and Tejanos declared independenceThe Republic of Texas was establishedTexans could not vote because of Mexican occupation, so Texas leaders set up a temporary governmentSam Houston was named commander in chief
16 Goliad Houston ordered troops at Goliad to abandon their position Before they could leave they were met by Mexican troops and had a fightSeveral hundred Texans surrenderedSanta Anna ordered them all executedThe Texans called it the “Goliad Massacre”
17 The Battle of San Jacinto Houston gathered an army of about 900 at San Jacinto (Near present day Houston)Nearby was Santa Anna with more than 1,300April 21- Texans launched a surprise attack yelling“Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad”They killed more than 600 and captured more than 700 more (including Santa Anna)May 14, Santa Anna signed a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas
18 The Lone Star RepublicSeptember Sam Houston was elected president of TexasHouston sent delegates to Washington D.C., asking the US to annex TexasAndrew Jackson refused the request… why?Another slave state would upset the balance of slave states and free states in CongressTexas would remain an independent country… for now
19 Continued Difficulties Texas still had problems with MexicoAlso had debtMany wanted to join the USSoutherners favored Texas annexation, Northerners opposed itThe slavery issue kept Texas from joining the US
20 1844 Election 1844 presidential campaign changed the situation Manifest Destiny was a popular idea at the timeWhen Polk became president, Congress passed a resolution to annex TexasTexas joined the Union in 1845
21 Why did Texans fight for their independence from Mexico? Essential QuestionWhy did Texans fight for their independence from Mexico?-Americans in Texas were upset about the actions of the Mexican government, including limitations placed on immigration from the US-Taxation on US imports, which discouraged trade and hurt Texans’ livelihoods-Plans to end slavery
23 6. Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home were called Texans.Tejanos.empresarios.
24 7. The Mexican government arrested Stephen F 7. The Mexican government arrested Stephen F. Austin because he worked forthe American government.Texas independence.President Santa Anna.overthrowing the government.
25 8. During the battle in Gonzales, Texas bore a flag on the cannon on which was printed, "Come and Take It.""Freedom or Death.""Texans Are Americans.""Texas or Die."
26 9. After which victory did Santa Anna sign a treaty recognizing the independence of Texas? Goliad Massacrethe AlamoBattle of San JacintoBattle of the Rio Grande
27 10. Who did the provisional government of the Republic of Texas name as commander in chief of the Texas forces?Davy CrockettSam HoustonJim BowieJohn Tyler