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Motivation and Emotion Ch 13 notes. Terminology  Motive: stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a specific goal  Need:

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotion Ch 13 notes. Terminology  Motive: stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a specific goal  Need:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation and Emotion Ch 13 notes

2 Terminology  Motive: stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a specific goal  Need: a condition in which we require something we lack –Both biological and psychological  Drives: forces that motivate an organism to take action (food gives rise to the hunger drive)

3 Instinct Theory  Behavior patterns that are genetically transmitted from generation to generation are instincts  At one time psychologists believed that human behavior, like that of animals, is instinctive  Today, most psychologists do not believe that human behavior is primarily motivated by instinct because it would need to be found throughout the species

4 Drive-Reduction Theory  Based on learning as well as motivation  People and animals experience a drive arising from a need as an unpleasant tension  Learn to do whatever will reduce that tension by reducing the drive (eat to reduce hunger drive)  Some drives are caused by biological needs, some are learned (need for $)  Do what we can to reduce the drive to reach a balance: homeostasis  Explains a lot but not all motivation

5 Humanistic Theory  People are also motivated by the conscious desire for personal growth and artistic fulfillment –Sometimes our drive to fulfill such needs outweighs our drive to meet more basic needs  Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs –People rise naturally through the levels as long as they do not encounter overwhelming obstacles along the way –Critics say it doesn’t apply to all

6 Sociocultural Theory  Even if basic drives such as hunger are inborn, cultural experiences and factors influence the behavior that people use to satisfy those drives –Foods people eat and the way they eat those foods are shaped by culture

7 Biological Needs  Can be complex because they involve psychological and physiological factors  Ex: food  Hunger drive: regulated by both biological and psychological factors

8 Hunger Drive  Mouth: chewing/swallowing help satisfy hunger drive  Stomach: hunger pangs felt in stomach play a role in hunger but are not main factors involved in signaling hunger  Blood sugar level: when low, message carried to hypothalamus  Hypothalamus: sends “start eating” message and “stop eating” message –If one or both don’t work properly, eating patterns are effected

9 Psychological Influences on Hunger  Learning certain amounts of food/drink will produce feeling of well-being and relaxation can cause people to eat/drink when they feel upset –Should parents reward good behavior with food?

10 Obesity  More than ½ of US adults are overweight –18% are obese: weigh more than 30% above recommended weight –Increasing problem in the US –Estimated that 300,000 people die each year because of health problems related to excess weight and inactivity

11 Losing Weight  Adolescents should be cautious because they need a good deal of nourishment  Sound diet is one that is sensible, realistic, and well planned  Improve nutritional knowledge, decrease caloric intake, exercise, and substitute healthful foods for harmful foods  Dieting plus exercise is more effective than dieting alone

12 Causes of Obesity  Biological and psychological factors  Runs in the family, so is it inherited? –Not necessarily because children learn what they live  Heredity does play a major role (adoptee study) –May not get messages from hypothalamus to stop eating –Genes determine # of fat cells a person has  Psychological Factors –Eat more under stress or negative emotions –Circumstances/situations (parties, tv watching)

13 Needs  Psychological & Biological Needs –Some psychological needs motivate us to reduce tension/stimulation –Others actually lead us to increase the amount of stimulation we experience  Stimulus motives: desires for stimulation –Sensory stimulation, activity, exploration, manipulation of the environment –Some have clear survival value (envir.)

14 Sensory Deprivation  Absence of stimulation  What happened to the people in the sensory deprivation experiment? –Felt very uncomfortable, felt they went through a terrible ordeal, had trouble concentrating and readjusting to their environment after the experiment  Proves the importance of sensory stimulation to humans

15 Sensation Seeker  Someone who seeks out thrilling activities

16 Why do some psychologists think exploration and manipulation are reinforcing in and of themselves?  Once a person feels comfortable with an environment, they seek novel stimulation (new experiences) –Ex: human infants and the “busy boxes”

17 High Achievement Motivation  Driven to get ahead  Tackle challenging situations  Driven to meet high personal standards of success

18 Performance v. Learning Goals  Performance –Specific goals  Ex: gaining admission to a college, earning parent/teacher approval, even just avoiding criticism  Learning –Learning for the sake of learning  Can be very powerful

19 Extrinsic v. Intrinsic Rewards  Extrinsic –External rewards –Good grades –Good income –Most often how performance goals are rewarded  Intrinsic –Internal rewards –Self-satisfaction –Usually how learning goals are rewarded

20 Parents’ Role  Crucial importance –Need to encourage children to be persistent and find own solutions to problems –Create opportunities to expose children to new and stimulating experiences (learning goals) –Reward kids with toys for good grades, punishment for bad grades (performance) –Overall, tend to be generous with praise to do well and less critical when their children do poorly

21 Cognitive Consistence Theory  People behave in ways expected of them  Primarily motivated by the beliefs we hold about how others view us  Most people prefer that the “pieces” of their lives fit together

22 Balance Theory  People need to organize their perceptions, opinions, and beliefs in a harmonious manner  Do this to maintain a cognitive balance by holding consistent views and by being with people who share their beliefs and values

23  What causes imbalance? –A major area of disagreement between 2 people who have strong feelings for each other  Tends to upset people  What causes a state of nonbalance? –Not having feelings toward someone  Leaves people feeling indifferent

24  According to the cognitive-dissonance theory, why do people behave the way that they do? –Most people want their thoughts and attitudes (cognitions) to be consistent with their actions  When we become aware that there is an inconsistency (dissonance) we feel unpleasant which causes inner tension that can be uncomfortable  Why do people desire affiliation with others? –Humans are social beings and need to be with others –During adolescence, this need is VERY strong

25 What happens when we experience strong emotions?  Activity in autonomic nervous system – anxiety for example triggers activity of sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system  How do emotions have biological, cognitive, and behavior components? –Anxiety makes heart race, breathe rapidly, sweat, muscles tense (bio) –Anxiety: idea that something bad might happen (cognitive) –Anxiety might lead a person to try to escape from a situation (behavioral)

26 Our Emotional State Effects Our Perceptions of Our Surroundings  Happier people usually think the world is a happier, safer place –Tend to make decisions more readily and are more satisfied with their lives  Unhappy people tend to feel like gloom is settling in over everything in their lives  Shows that happiness and unhappiness create their own momentum  Happier we are, the more likely we are to help others

27 Anger  Response to insult or attack  Assertive reaction vs. hostile reaction –Can go and speak with the person who made them angry about whatever it was that made them angry rather than getting revenge  Assertiveness is more effective because it allows a person to approach his/her feelings and reduce them while not causing harm to themselves or others

28 Facial Expressions  Probably inborn –The ways that specific emotions are expressed appear to be the same around the world

29 Theories of Emotion  Opponent-Process Theory  Commonsense Approach  James-Lange Theory  Cannon-Bard Theory  Theory of Cognitive Appraisal

30 Opponent-Process Theory  Emotions come in parts with one followed by its opposite  Eventually restores a balance

31 Commonsense Approach  When something happens to a person in a certain situation, the person quickly interprets the situation  Interpretations trigger body sensations that signal a feeling or emotion  Emotions trigger a behavior  This approach (broad view) has influenced the next 3 theories

32 James-Lange Theory  People’s emotions follow, rather than cause, their behavioral reactions to situations  People act first then react emotionally according to the way they acted  Certain situations trigger reactions – instinctive bodily response patterns that include specific feelings and behaviors  Suggests people can change their feelings by changing their environment

33 Problems with James-Lange Theory  Cognition has little role in determining behavior  Minimizes the role of personal values and choice as factors in human behavior

34 Cannon-Bard Theory  Emotions accompany bodily responses that are aroused by external stimuli  Situation triggers external stimulus that is processed by the brain, brain stimulates bodily changes and cognitive activity (experience of the emotion) happens simultaneously  Emotions are not produced by bodily responses  A 2 stage reaction is involved: bodily response followed by an emotional reaction

35 Theory of Cognitive Appraisal  Argues that all emotions have basically similar bodily response patterns –Body reacts in physically similar ways with different emotions it experiences  Maintains that the way people label an emotion depends on their cognitive appraisal of the situation  Cognitive appraisal that occurs is based on many factors: analysis of situation and ways other are reacting in same situation

36 Criticism of Cognitive Appraisal  Studies designed to support the theory often yield different results when repeated –Lacking test-retest reliability

37 So, are any of the theories correct?  No  None are perfect  People are very complex  Emotions then are also complex


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