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Section 1: Jefferson as President Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase

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1 Section 1: Jefferson as President Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase
CHAPTER 11 The Expanding Nation Section 1: Jefferson as President Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase Section 3: The Coming of War Section 4: The War of 1812

2 The Republican Victory
SECTION 1 Jefferson as President The Republican Victory A large crowd attended the inauguration of Jefferson. They were celebrating more than his election. They were celebrating the fact that there was Republican control of both houses of Congress. This gave them the power to make things happen. This inauguration marked the 1st time that one political party had control of both Executive and Legislative branches of the govt. With the country going from a Federalist President, to a Democratic – Republican, this showed that our country could change power from one group to another peacefully. This was rare for this time period. Jefferson made it clear that his presidency would be one ruled by the mass of people, but not by mob rule. He was going to do away with many Federalist policies and ideas. But he also said that he would do it fairly.

3 SECTION 1 Jefferson as President
Jefferson in Office Now that he was elected, Jefferson faced the task of putting his Republican ideas into effect. 1st order of business – select his cabinet. James Madison & Albert Gallatin were chosen. 2nd order of business – Jefferson lowered military spending. Cut the size of the army. Cut navy to 7 ships. (hoped this $$ saved would help repay national debt.) Got rid of unpopular taxes like Whiskey tax. 3rd order of business – let some Federalist policies stay. He kept the Bank of the US. B/c it made $$ for the government. Dem-Rep. Wanted Jefferson to replace Federalists in the govt. They wanted those jobs to go to their party. Jefferson finally gave in & replaced some Federalists.

4 SECTION 1 Jefferson as President
Marbury v. Madison Before Jefferson took office, Adams passed a law creating many new jobs for Judges. His hope was that the Federalists could keep control of the Judicial branch. With their being no limit on their terms, those Federalist judges would rule the Judicial branch for years to come. Adams worked on this until almost midnight the day before Jefferson was to take over. (midnight judges) Some of the judges just had to be hand delivered their paperwork to start their job. Adams couldn’t get it all done, so he left some work for Jefferson to do the next day. Upset by the “midnight judges,” Jefferson ordered his sec. of state: Madison not to deliver the orders. This is what It’s all about !!!

5 SECTION 1 Jefferson as President
Marbury v. Madison pt. 2 William Marbury was effected by this and sued for his paperwork. The Supreme Court (headed by a Federalist Chief Justice: John Marshall) took this case and agreed with Marbury. It was unfair what Jefferson had done. He should give the papers to Marbury, but, they also said that the Supreme Court had no authority to force Jefferson to give them up. Marbury claimed that the Judiciary Act of 1789 said they did have the power (and it did say that), but the S.C. Said that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. This made it seem like they were giving up their power. In reality they were taking a far greater power. The power to declare a law unconstitutional was what they really wanted. This power gave them more power within in the government. Thus, the Judicial branch became a far more important branch than ever thought by the founding fathers. The power of Judicial Review was the new power of the Supreme Court.

6 SECTION 1 Jefferson as President Question: Which Republican policies did Jefferson introduce, and which Federalist policies did he accept during his presidency?

7 Jefferson as President
SECTION 1 Jefferson as President Republican Policies cut military spending did not commission ‘midnight judges’ repealed whiskey tax Federalist Policies kept the Bank of the United States

8 SECTION 2 The Louisiana Purchase
French Louisiana In 1800, France was led by General Napoleon Bonaparte. His political ambition & military skill caused fear across Europe. As he conquered neighboring countries in Europe, he dreamed of rebuilding Frances empire in North America. The only thing that stood between him doing that was 2 things. Spain & the slave island of Haiti. Spain was afraid of Napoleon and gave him Louisiana to keep him from conquering Spain. Haiti on the other hand proved to be a thorn in Napoleon's side.

9 SECTION 2 The Louisiana Purchase
French Louisiana pt. 2 Haiti’s leader, Toussaint-Louverture, the led a slave revolt from France and defeated the French army. Napoleon had no choice but to forget about his ambitions in North America for now. With this wasted attempt at taking over North America, Napoleon needed $$ to repay for what he had lost, and he needed this $$ for his wars in Europe. Enter Jefferson and the US.

10 The Louisiana Purchase
SECTION 2 The Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase Jefferson & members of Congress were nervous about Napoleon, so Jefferson sent an ambassador to France to talk to Napoleon about buying New Orleans from the French. New Orleans was an important port to the US along the Mississippi River. The US ambassadors offered $10 million for New Orleans, but Talleyrand (France's Prime Minister) said that w/out New Orleans, Louisiana was worthless. So he wanted to know if the US would be interested in all of the Louisiana Territory. Talleyrand wanted $15 million for all of the land. The US ambassadors were more than excited, and even though congress only said they could spend $10 million, they agreed to the deal and we bought the Louisiana territory from France.

11 The Louisiana Purchase
SECTION 2 The Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase Jefferson had problems accepting this deal, as he was a Strict Constructionist when it came to the Constitution. That was part of the platform he ran for President on, & now he was doing something not it the Constitution. It made him look like a liar. He took a lot of heat from the Federalists about this. Most federalists were loose constructionists which meant they believed if it didn’t say it in the constitution, then they had the right to do it.

12 SECTION 2 The Louisiana Purchase
Mission of Discovery Americans knew little about western American Indians or the lands they inhabited. Jefferson wanted to learn more about the people and land of the West. To lead this expedition, he chose Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark. They were told to explore the Missouri River. Jefferson wanted them to form peaceful relations with American Indians they met. He also wanted to know about the kinds of soil, animals, land, weather, people, etc… in the area. This group that went on the journey was called the Corps of Discovery.

13 The Lewis & Clark Expedition
SECTION 2 The Louisiana Purchase The Lewis & Clark Expedition Left in May Set out from St. Louis, Missouri. Sacagawea, a Shoshone Indian was their interpreter. Sacagawea's husband guided the Corps across the Great Plains into the Rocky Mts.

14 SECTION 2 The Louisiana Purchase
Pike’s Exploration The year that Lewis & Clark returned, a young army officer (Zebulon Pike) set off to explore the Western lands of the new territory. His goal was to find the starting point of the Red River. (also to spy on Spanish outposts if the opportunity came about) Although he had passed into Spanish lands, Pike continued exploring. He followed the river until a group of Spanish cavalry arrested him. When arrested, Pike said: What, is this not the Red River? They arrested him on the suspicion of spying. When finally released, Pike encouraged the US to seek good business opportunities in the American Southwest.

15 Question: How and why did the Louisiana Purchase take place?
SECTION 2 The Louisiana Purchase Question: How and why did the Louisiana Purchase take place?

16 The Louisiana Purchase
SECTION 2 The Louisiana Purchase EVENTS THAT LED TO THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE Jefferson wanted to prevent the French from controlling New Orleans. Jefferson sends Livingston to France to purchase New Orleans and Florida. France offers to sell all of Louisiana to help fund war against Great Britain. The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France.

17 SECTION 3 The Coming of War Danger on the High Seas
The state of Algiers was one of several North African lands known as the Barbary States. These countries practiced piracy & held foreign citizens captive for ransom. For a long time, the US paid tribute (bribes) to these countries. However, eventually, the US refused to pay any more and sent the US Navy to end the pirate raids. When Great Britain & France went to War in 1803, the US was dragged into the conflict. Each country wanted to stop the US from supplying the other with supplies. Both began impressing American sailors & boats (forcing sailors to join your army, and taking goods and supplies). Leopard vs. USS Chesapeake – When the British Captain of the Leopard tried to impress 4 American sailors, the USS Chesapeake Captain refused to let them go. So, the Leopard took them by force and attacked the Chesapeake.

18 SECTION 3 The Coming of War A Trade War
Debates raged about how the US should react ! War or Embargo (banning of trade, against Britain)? President Jefferson & the Republicans favored Embargo. In 1807, congress passed the Embargo Act. This act banned trade with foreign countries. In theory, this law was supposed to hurt England and France. They were supposed to come to their senses and stop impressing our boats. However, what the act really did was hurt American Merchants (traders). They were forced to smuggle goods or starve. With the passing of the Embargo Act, the Federalist Party began to become more popular. There were hundreds of complaints against this act. Meanwhile, France and England were basically unaffected by the law. Congress eventually fixes the Embargo Act with the Non-Intercourse Act. This act banned trade only with France & England. It also said that the US would start trading with them as soon as they stopped treating us bad.

19 SECTION 3 The Coming of War The Rise of Tecumseh
Disagreements between England & the US went beyond the neutrality issue. In the West, England was arming Indians with weapons to fight Americans. Tecumseh (a Shawnee chief) was an important leader against the Americans. Governor (Ind.) William Henry Harrison saw Tecumseh as a serious threat, so he gathered up an army & went after Tecumseh. While Tecumseh & much of his army were away, Harrison & the US army attacked the defenseless Shawnee’s. The Battle of Tippecanoe started when a small force of Indians attacked Harrison’s fort. Harrison cool, & calm held off the Indians and then chased them away. He then followed them back to their village. Harrison ordered the village destroyed. With Tecumseh away, he lost much respect & support.

20 SECTION 3 The Coming of War The War Debate Clay Calhoun
Many Americans believed the British had put Tecumseh up to this war. So now, it was England’s turn to pay. War Hawks were members of Congress from the West & South that favored a war with Britain. (Henry Clay – Kent., & John C. Calhoun – S.C.)

21 SECTION 3 The Coming of War
A Declaration of War The strongest opponents of the War Hawks were the Federalists from New England. The British trade restrictions (Embargo Act, Non-Intercourse Act) were hurting their way of life, and they wanted things returned to the way they were before. American sailors being : impressed

22 SECTION 3 The Coming of War Question: Why did the United States declare war on Great Britain in 1812?

23 The Coming of War SECTION 3 REASONS FOR WAR
interference with American trade impressment of American sailors military aid to American Indians support of War Hawks for a war

24 SECTION 4 The War of 1812 On August 19, 1812, the USS Constitution met the British ship Guerrierre off the coast of Nova Scotia. The ships circled each other. The Constitution’s first cannon blast rocked the Guerriere like “the shock of an earthquake.” When the British returned fire, their cannon blast bounced off the side of the Constitution like they fired a tennis ball. Nicknamed “old ironsides,” the USS Constitution won one of the first battles of the War of 1812.

25 The War of 1812 SECTION 4 The War @ Sea
The Constitution’s triumph over the Guerriere shocked many observers who expected the British to sweep the US Navy from the seas. Although outnumbered, the US did have some advantages. The US govt. licensed privately owned ships to attack British merchant ships. Equipping them with guns, was much cheaper than building new boats. Most of the British Navy’s ships were scattered around the globe & couldn’t be called away to fight the US. The US navy had well trained sailors & newer more modern warships such as the USS Constitution. These new boats carried more ammo and were iron plated. With the skill of the American sailors and the new ships, the US Navy defeated the British early on in the war in 1 on 1 battles. B/c of the early victories, the British were forced to blockade the American’s coast. They would stop all merchant ships from coming in and going out. (What effect might this have on America?)

26 The War of 1812 SECTION 4 The Canadian Border
Hoping to equal the early success of the US Navy, American leaders hoped to invade Canada with 3 separate armies. They expected the French Canadians to welcome US troops. They thought, “conquering Canada from the British with French support would just be a matter of marching there.” These hopes were soon dashed, as the British joined with Indian allies (Techmsh) and defeated the American army and took over Fort Detroit. Also, the French Canadians never showed up, they wouldn’t fight for their freedom. Soon(by the end of 1812), the British controlled the strategic Great Lakes Region. Shortly after that(1813), American captain Oliver Hazard Perry was sent to Lake Erie to break the British control of the Great Lakes. The Battle of Lake Erie lasted more than 3 hours. Both sides suffered heavy losses. Finally the British surrendered. Perry sent a note to General William Henry Harrison. It said, “we have met the enemy and they are ours.” Perry’s victory gave the Americans new hope.

27 The War of 1812 SECTION 4 The Frontier War
Harrison took advantage of Perry’s victory by pushing the British and Indians into Canada. A major battle took place at the Thames River in Canada. In the Battle of Thames, Harrison boldly ordered an American cavalry directly into the face of a British stronghold. The surprised British retreated, but the American Indians led by Tecumseh didn’t. They held, but eventually retreated. When they did, Tecumseh himself was killed. This weakened the British-Indian alliance. This battle finally broke all British power in the Northwest frontier of the US. The US was finally able to secure its border between the US and Canada. Andrew Jackson fights an important battle in Alabama called the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson also had to fight a group of Indians (Creek). They had killed 250 American soldiers and Jackson was sent to get revenge on them. Jackson and the US forces fought to a convincing victory. Soon, the Creek surrendered and gave up over 2,000,000 acres of land to the US.

28 The War of 1812 SECTION 4 The British on the Offensive
Despite the success on the Western frontier, things back east grew worse. Having defeated the French in 1814, Britain now sent more troops to the US. They also strengthened their blockade of the Atlantic Coast. With new reinforcements, the British now concentrated on the Capital of Washington D.C. President Madison and most of his cabinet were forced to flee when the British broke through US defenses and began burning down the City (mashed potato and Dolly Madison stories). The burning of the White House and other buildings was in response to the US doing the same thing to the British capital in Canada. After this battle, the British boarded a boat headed for Baltimore, Maryland which was guarded by Fort McHenry. The British shelled the fort for ove 25 hours (Star-Spangled Banner / Francis Scott Key). The Americans refused to give up the Fort, and the British decided to just leave instead of continue with little hope for victory.

29 SECTION 4 The War of 1812 The British on the Offensive McHenry

30 The War of 1812 SECTION 4 The Battle of New Orleans
After their victory in Washington D.C., they launched an attack on New Orleans hoping to capture the city and cut off the Mississippi River. Andrew Jackson was in command of US troops there. When he found out what the British were about to do, he quickly constructed a dirt/mud wall for a defense. It worked. The Battle of New Orleans began on the morning of Jan. 8, British had about 5500 troops, Jackson had about The British army began their attack under the cover of heavy fog, but right before they got to Jackson’s wall, the fog mysteriously cleared and the American opened fire on the unprotected British. The Brits returned fire, but only hit the mud wall. By the end of the battle, over 2000 Brits were dead, with only about 70 Americans being wounded. This battle made Jackson a Hero !!!

31 The War of 1812 SECTION 4 Ending the War
Before the Battle of New Orleans took place, New England Federalists met in Hartford, Connecticut to discuss their opposition to the War. This became known as the Hartford Convention. Some delegates wanted the New England states to withdraw from the Union. This attempt at challenging the power of the US proved devastating to the Federalists. After the Hartford Convention, the Federalist party loses most of its political power. The Treaty of Ghent was signed on Dec. 24, It ended the War of Days before the Battle of New Orleans was fought. (why did they fight the battle then?) Frustrated with their lack of success in the War, the British just gave up, just as they did in the American Revolution. (British public opinion) The two sides couldn’t agree to anything in regards to their problems (impressment, or trade embargoes), so the treaty basically ended the war with nobody gaining or losing anything. The Americans were proud of how their young country stood up to the challenge of the mighty British Empire. After fighting this war, America becomes a super power in the World. (Why)

32 Question: How did the war progress on the Great Lakes and at sea?
SECTION 4 The War of 1812 Question: How did the war progress on the Great Lakes and at sea?

33 SECTION 4 The War of 1812 The War at Sea USS Constitution defeats the Guerriere. British seize ships and blockade ports. The War in the Great Lakes Perry defeats the British in the Battle of Lake Erie. PROGRESSION OF THE WAR AT SEA AND ON THE GREAT LAKES

34 Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 11
1. What was the significance of the Marbury v. Madison decision, and what issues did it resolve? 2. Why did President Jefferson send Lewis and Clark to explore the West, and what important information did they bring back? 3. What conflicts arose between the United States and American Indians along the western frontier?

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