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Analysis of Chapters 1-16 To Kill a Mockingbird.

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Presentation on theme: "Analysis of Chapters 1-16 To Kill a Mockingbird."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analysis of Chapters 1-16 To Kill a Mockingbird

2 Character List Jean Louise Finch “Scout” Atticus Finch
Jeremy Atticus “Jem” Finch Arthur “Boo” Radley Charles Baker “Dill” Harris Miss Maudie Atkinson Calpurnia Aunt Alexandra Mayella Ewell Tom Robinson Nathan Radley Walter Cunningham Burris Ewell

3 Themes (main ideas in the novel)
The Coexistence of Good and Evil The Importance of Moral Education The Existence of Social Inequality

4 Motifs-recurring ideas that help develop the themes.
Gothic Details (forces of good and evil) Small-town life (moral education)

5 Chapter 1 Setting-1930’s Maycomb County, AL Very poor community
Lots of country folk Post Depression era Meet Atticus, Jem, Scout, and Dill

6 Chapter 2 Scout attends school.
Teacher doesn’t support the fact that Scout knows how to read. This reveals change taking place during the time period Changes had to be made to make the nation better again. Walter Cunningham is symbol of poverty

7 Chapter 3 Calpurnia is seen as parental figure
Scout learns wisdom from Atticus Tolerance and acceptance is important. Meet Burris Ewell—see the other side of poverty

8 Chapter 4 Scout finds gifts left in Radley tree.
They create a play about the Radley’s. This play was to prove that Jem didn’t fear them. It was his way of confronting them without interaction. Atticus is upset when he realizes what they are doing.

9 Chapter 5 Scout feels left out. She becomes third party for the boys. She questions her identity. Dill proposes to her. She is being treated like a girl. This pushes her to befriend other females (Miss Maudie). Miss Maudie reiterates the same lesson Atticus taught her but in relation to the Radley’s.

10 Chapter 5 continued They attempt to communicate with Boo. Atticus catches them trying to put a note in the window. A reoccurring idea in the novel is “You can’t understand a person until you climb in his skin and walk around.”

11 Chapter 6 Jem, Dill, and Scout sneak up to the Radley house to peak in the window. They are seen. As they’re running away, they hear gun shots and Jem loses his pants. Dill reveals his loyalty when he claims he won Jem’s pants from him while playing strip poker. Jem and Scout don’t know what that is (reveals innocence).

12 Chapter 6 continued Jem returns to get his pants because he doesn’t want Atticus to be upset with him. He gets them, returns home, and seems scared too death.

13 Chapter 7 Scout reveals her compassion in this chapter when she tries to imagine what Jem has gone through and leaves him alone. Gothic elements are revealed. Boo Radley, though seemingly evil, reveals good side of him. Reader must infer that it is Boo who mends and folds the pants, and it’s Boo who leaves gifts in the tree for the kids.

14 Chapter 7 continued… Readers see a more mature, understanding side of Jem. When Nathan Radley cements the knot-hole, Jem is devastated. He understands this as his only connection to Boo, and now he has lost that.

15 Chapter 8 Mrs. Radley dies, and the children initially blame it on Boo. Even after receiving the gifts, Jem and Scout still view him as evil. When it snows in Maycomb, the children reveal innocence…they’ve never built a snowman. Community causes them to be closed-minded.

16 Chapter 8 continued… Though they are innocent, Mr. Avery accuses them of causing the snow to fall. These children face adversity yet are able to endure it and move on. Miss Maudie’s house catches on fire and nearly the entire neighborhood comes out to help. Good and evil are side by side here. In the wake of an evil event, good is found.

17 Chapter 8 continued… While standing outside, Scout has a blanket put on her shoulders. Once back at the house, Jem and Scout realize whose it is and are shocked. Jem defends Boo. Miss Maudie is not upset about the loss of her house. She reveals her small-town values through her concern of others.

18 Chapter 9 In this chapter, the reader sees a change in the novel. Scout and Jem begin to lose their innocence. Scout gets in a fight defending Atticus. Cecil Jacobs claims he (Atticus) defends black folks. Atticus says he must do this so he can feel good about himself, and it’s the right thing to do.

19 Chapter 9 continued… Atticus, Scout, and Jem spend Christmas with Aunt Alexandra (Atticus’ sister), a cold and heartless woman—according to Scout. Again, Scout is ridiculed for not being a “girl.” She is not allowed to be herself. Loss of innocence—Scout is told Dill has no home. Francis (her cousin) calls Atticus a “n”-lover. This infuriates Scout, and she fights him over it.

20 Chapter 9 continued… Scout is punished, but eventually tells Uncle Jack what happened. She doesn’t want to disappoint Atticus, so she asks Jack to not tell him. Atticus reveals his parenting technique. He believes in telling children the truth and raising them through teaching morals.

21 Chapter 10 Jem and Scout are ashamed of their father because he does nothing important. They even find him boring. The children see his dead shot of the rabid dog Tim Johnson as courageous. Ironically, Atticus sees courage as something different. Scout and Jem have a lot to learn about true bravery.

22 Chapter 10 continued… Atticus comes to the rescue and the townspeople seem to have expected it from him. Atticus becomes a symbol of hope and protection in the community. Not only does he protect them from the mad dog, but he also protects them from other evils during the Tom Robinson trial. He is the protector of the innocent (the mockingbirds).

23 Chapter 11 Mrs. Dubose lives down the street from Jem and Scout. Every time they pass she yells at them. Atticus explains that she is very ill. Scout sees Atticus’ politeness to her as bravery. Mrs. Dubose eventually gets to Jem when she insults Atticus’ defending lower people.

24 Chapter 11 continued… Scout says this is the first insult from an adult about this—again, loss of innocence. Jem’s anger finally gets the best of him and he destroys her flowers. Jem apologizes, but it’s not sincere. Mrs. Dubose has asked (in addition to him working in her yard) for Jem to read to her. Each meeting would begin with her insulting the children and end with her not saying much of anything

25 Chapter 11 continued… After Mrs. Dubose dies, we discover that she was a morphine addict. She didn’t like this and vowed to break her habit before she died. Jem reading to her was a way for her to escape. Atticus tells Jem that he agreed to Jem reading to her because he wanted him to see what true courage is: even though you know you are going to fail at something, true courage is still trying anyway.

26 Chapter 12 Since Jem is growing up, he is becoming more moody. Scout leaves him alone when he is in a bad mood. Dill does not come for the summer because he has a new father. Calpurnia takes Jem and Scout to church with her; she makes sure she cleans them and makes them look nice. This reveals her compassion and pride for the children.

27 Chapter 12 continued… Readers are introduced to the customs of the black community. Though the congregation is financially poor, they are rich in spirit and dignity. With the exception of Lula, the entire church welcomes the Finch children with open arms. They understand the great sacrifice Atticus is making by defending one of their own.

28 Chapter 12 continued… Calpurnia reveals her ability to speak both “black” and “white” English. She becomes a mutual support of both sides. During this time, many saw “white” speech as proper and “black” speech as improper. Lula represents the same ignorance the Ewell’s show. There are some on both sides who believe that blacks and whites should lead separate lives.

29 Chapter 13 Aunt Alexandra moves in with the family because Atticus will be gone most of the summer to work on the Tom Robinson case. Alexandra’s opinions of families reveal the discrimination among whites as well as between whites and blacks. Alexandra believes the children are not representing their ancestors well. The Finch family is a prominent part of the community.

30 Chapter 13 continued… Scout, according to her aunt, does not represent what a Finch woman should be. Scout becomes a victim of a stereotype. Unfortunately, she is not allowed to be herself.

31 Chapter 14 Aunt Alexandra takes away Scout’s innocence—rejects her request to go to Calpurnia’s house. It’s society that places values on children. This happens today. Atticus emphasizes respect for all—even those who don’t necessarily deserve it. Atticus reveals his loyalty to Calpurnia—he goes against even his own family.

32 Chapter 14 continued… Jem feels he must become man of the family since Atticus is busy—he is forced to grow up too fast. When sent to bed after fighting, Scout finds Dill on her bedroom floor. Jem continues his transformation into adulthood by telling Atticus Dill is there. Dill had run away from home because he wasn’t being paid enough attention.

33 Chapter 15 Atticus reiterates his reason for taking on the case of Tom Robinson—even though he knows that Robinson will be killed, the truth is going to be told. He tells this to a group of concerned men who have gathered outside his door. On Sunday evening, Atticus leaves the house and Jem, Scout, and Dill follow him. Atticus goes to the jailhouse where Robinson is being held.

34 Chapter 15 A group of Maycomb’s residents meet Atticus there.
Atticus tells the men to not wake Robinson and they speak in whispers—reveals the respect Atticus commands. Sensing a fight, Scout runs into the middle of the circle of men. Scout realizes these men are strangers to her except for Mr. Cunningham.

35 Chapter 15 continued… In Scout’s innocent mind, she wanted to make Mr. Cunningham feel comfortable so she talks about things in which he’s interested. Eventually the group clears out and Mr. Underwood reveals that he had them under his watch the entire time. Atticus is like a light in the darkness—it is because of his morals and strength that prejudice and racism has not destroyed the entire world.

36 Chapter 15 continued… Mr. Cunningham is portrayed as a good person in the beginning of the novel. Since he is part of a mob, he loses thoughts of consequences and reacts according to the mob’s desires.

37 Chapter 16 Scout is still a little shaken up about the night before. Jem comforts her. Alexandra doesn’t like the fact that Atticus speaks freely in front of Calpurnia. This reveals her “us vs. them” attitude. Scout learns the hard way that some people are easily influenced by others especially when in a mob.

38 Chapter 16 continued… Atticus believes there is still good in people since Scout (an 8 year old) could stop them from harming him. The trial begins and the children are not going to stay at home. On their way through town Jem educates Dill and Scout about Mr. Dolphus Raymond and “mixed” children.

39 Chapter 16 continued… Jem says, “around here once you have a drop of negro blood, that makes you all black.” This reveals how ridiculous racism is. According to the Bible, since we all came from the same people, we have much of the same blood. Once at the courthouse, they sit in the balcony with Reverend Sykes.

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