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Unclassified Human Performance Improvement Principles for Managers.

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Presentation on theme: "Unclassified Human Performance Improvement Principles for Managers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unclassified Human Performance Improvement Principles for Managers

2 Unclassified1 Course Objective Management will be able to create an environment where workers can make good decisions by: –Recognizing the role of the individual and human fallibility in human performance –Identifying how organizational systems influence human behavior –Embracing the role of the leader to manage organizational systems and positively influence human behavior

3 Unclassified2 When Good Pets Go Bad

4 Unclassified3 Human Performance “People do not operate in a vacuum, where they can decide and act all- powerfully. To err or not to err is not a choice. Instead, people’s work is subject to and constrained by multiple factors”. — Sidney Dekker

5 Unclassified4 What is Human Performance? An individual… working within organizational systems… to meet expectations set by leaders.

6 Unclassified5 How to Improve Human Performance Address limitations of human nature Remove error traps Create error- tolerant systems Reinforce desired behaviors Individual Organization Incentives to meet leader’s expectations

7 Unclassified6 Definitions Operational Upset: A condition that adversely affects, or may adversely affect, DOE or contractor personnel, the public, property, environment or the DOE mission. Error: An unintentional deviation from an expected behavior. Violation: Deliberate, intentional acts to evade a known policy or procedure requirement for personal advantage usually adopted for fun, comfort, expedience, or convenience

8 Unclassified7 HPI Principles 1.People are fallible 2.Error-likely situations are predictable 3.Individual behaviors are influenced 4.Operational upsets can be avoided 5.People achieve high levels of performance based encouragement and reinforcement.

9 Unclassified8 The Individual HPI Principle #1: People are fallible, and even the best make mistakes.

10 Unclassified9 Origins of Human Error Human Error Slip, trip or lapse Equipment Failures Human Errors Operational Upsets System Induced Error

11 Unclassified10 Basketball Count the number of passes between white-shirted players You MUST be accurate PAY ATTENTION!

12 Unclassified11 Limitations of Human Nature Mistakes arise directly from the way the mind handles information, not through stupidity or carelessness. — Dr. Edward de Bono

13 Unclassified12 Limitations of Human Nature Stress Avoidance of mental strain Inaccurate mental models Limited working memory Limited attention resources Mind set Difficulty seeing own errors Limited perspective Susceptible to emotion Focus on the goal Fatigue See page 4 in your Concepts Guide

14 Unclassified13 Hazardous Attitudes Pride: “Don’t insult my intelligence.” Heroic: “I’ll get it done, by hook or by crook.” Invulnerable: “That can’t happen to me.” Fatalistic: “What’s the use?” Bald Tire: “Gone 60K miles without a flat yet.” Summit Fever: “We’re almost done.” Pollyanna: “Nothing bad will happen.” See page 6 in your Concepts Guide

15 Unclassified14 Risk “Risks that you can control are much less a source of outrage than risks you can NOT control.” — Peter Sandman … in other words, the risks that scare people and the risks that actually kill people are very different

16 Unclassified15 Performance Modes When switching from one performance mode to another a worker is presented with a new situation but has only old information on which to base decisions. See page 7 in your Concepts Guide

17 Unclassified16 Error Traps HPI Principle #2: Error-likely situations are predictable, manageable, and preventable.

18 Unclassified17 Saw Stop TM

19 Unclassified18 Error Precursors Limited short-term memory Personality conflicts Mental shortcuts (biases) Lack of alternative indication Inaccurate risk perception (Pollyanna) Unexpected equipment conditions Mindset (“tuned” to see) Hidden system response Complacency / Overconfidence Workarounds / OOS instruments Assumptions (inaccurate mental picture) Confusing displays or controls Habit patterns Changes / Departures from routine Stress (limits attention) Distractions / Interruptions Illness / Fatigue Lack of or unclear standards “Hazardous” attitude for critical task Unclear goals, roles, & responsibilities Indistinct problem-solving skills Interpretation requirements Lack of proficiency / Inexperience Irrecoverable acts Imprecise communication habits Repetitive actions, monotonous New technique not used before Simultaneous, multiple tasks Lack of knowledge (mental model) High Workload (memory requirements) Unfamiliarity w/ task / First time Time pressure (in a hurry) Task Demands Individual Capabilities Work EnvironmentHuman Nature See page 18 in your Concepts Guide

20 Unclassified19 Error Prevention Tools Self-checking Peer-checking Concurrent verification Independent verification Three-way communication STAR Pre-job briefing Post-job briefing Procedure use & adherence Problem-solving Questioning attitude Conservative decision making Stop & collaborate

21 Unclassified20 The Organization HPI Principle #3: Individual behavior is influenced by organizational processes and values.

22 Unclassified21 New vs. Old View of Human Error Human error is a cause of accidents To explain failure, investigations must seek failure They must find people’s inaccurate assessments, wrong decisions and bad judgments Human error is a symptom of trouble deeper inside a system… To explain failure, do not try to find where people went wrong. Instead, find how people’s assessments and actions made sense at the time, given the circumstances that surrounded them.

23 Unclassified22 The Dryden Event Air Ontario Flight 363 Fokker F28 Dryden, Canada March 10, 1989

24 Unclassified23 Types of Error Active Errors change equipment, system or processes that trigger immediate undesired consequences. Latent Errors result in undetected organization-related weaknesses or equipment flaws that lie dormant. See page 12 in your Concepts Guide

25 Unclassified24 Understanding Events Incentives are the cornerstone of human behavior Dramatic events often have distant even subtle causes Conventional wisdom is often wrong Knowing what to measure and how to measure it makes a complex world much less complicated

26 Unclassified25 Organizational Processes Workplaces and organizations are easier to manage than the minds of individual workers. You cannot change the human condition, but you can change the conditions under which people work. — Dr. James Reason

27 Unclassified26 The Value of Error Tolerance Error without consequence is a good thing — it shows that our systems are error-tolerant and that they are working.

28 Unclassified27 Defenses in Depth Redundancy: many layers of protection. Diversity: many different varieties of protection. Independence: separate/autonomous layers of protection. See page 14 in your Concepts Guide

29 Unclassified28 Traditional Heisenberg Model Number of errors is relative to the severity of consequences For every major accident there are many errors Leads us to assume that driving down errors will eliminate major accidents See page 16 in your Concepts Guide

30 Unclassified29 New View of Heisenberg Model The consequence of error has no relationship to the number of errors It is related to the number and integrity of defenses Any error can lead to a major accident if defenses fail

31 Unclassified30 Zero Operational Upsets Re + Md → OU Reducing Error AND Managing Defenses leads to Zero Operational Upsets See page 20 in your Concepts Guide

32 Unclassified31 Medical Mistakes

33 Unclassified32 Organizational Values HPI Principle #4: Operational upsets can be avoided by understanding the reasons mistakes occur and applying the lessons learned from past events.

34 Unclassified33 Blame Cycle See page 23 in your Concepts Guide

35 Unclassified34 Culpability Decision Tree See page 26 in your Concepts Guide

36 Unclassified35 Accountability vs. Culpability AccountabilityCulpability The power to accomplish performance objectives The blame for failure vs. A starting point for improvements A dead end that discourages reporting vs. Arises from empowerment and partnership Is disempowering and divisive vs. See page 40 in your Concepts Guide

37 Unclassified36 Performance Culture Encourage Reporting: Value errors as leading safety data Create a Just Work Environment: Don’t try and punish errors out of the system Flexibility: Prepare workers to adapt effectively to changing demands Learning: Create opportunities for observation, reflection and feedback See page 28 in your Concepts Guide

38 Unclassified37 Barriers to a Learning Organization 20 years of experience = 1 year of learning repeated 20 times Experts use their informational advantage to reinforce their biases

39 Unclassified38 Human to Systems Interface People will never perform better than what the organization will allow If a system relies on people doing the right thing every time, it will fail No working system remains in stasis

40 Unclassified39 The Leader HPI Principle #5: People achieve high levels of performance based largely on the encouragement and reinforcement received from peers, leaders, and subordinates.

41 Unclassified40 Fallacy of Competing Resources See page 31 in your Concepts Guide

42 Unclassified41 How Leaders Influence Protection vs. Production What they pay attention to, measure, and control Their reactions to critical incidents or crises The allocation of resources Their criteria for allocation of rewards and punishment Their criteria for selection, advancement, and termination Their deliberate attempts to coach or model behaviors. See page 33 in your Concepts Guide

43 Unclassified42 Reality Check Safety values express how you desire safety to be in your organization. Safety systems are real defenses and actionable programs that provide measurable safety data sets.

44 Unclassified43 Implementing HPI HPI is not just training It is a way of doing business that includes: –Behavioral observation and walk-arounds –Conduct of operations and work management –Systems development and re-engineering –Issues reporting, management and corrective actions –Event investigation and lessons learned –Performance management and assurance –Simulations and training


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