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Nanostructured Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Permanent Magnets Paul McGuiness Department for Nanostructured Materials Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana,

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Presentation on theme: "Nanostructured Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Permanent Magnets Paul McGuiness Department for Nanostructured Materials Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nanostructured Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Permanent Magnets Paul McGuiness Department for Nanostructured Materials Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia

2 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Permanent-magnet (PM) materials Magnetic properties PM applications Nano melt-spun magnets Nano HDDR magnets Summary H2H2 Introduction

3 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia

4 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Magnetic properties Ms Br HciHcb BH max Permanent-magnet properties +H-H

5 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia lodestone (1724) ferrite (1950) neodymium iron boron (2006) 280 years of progress

6 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia MGOe steel AlNiCo Ferrite SmCo5 Sm2Co17 Sm2Fe17N3 NdFeB + price + mechanical + temperature + history Improved properties over time

7 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Improved properties over time Br (Tesla) Hcj (MA/m) Sintered NdFeB Bonded SmCo (Bonded nano MQ NdFeB) Sintered Ferrite Alnicos Bonded nano HDDR NdFeB

8 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Automotive apps 2008 Lexus RX Hybrid 1118 magnets (inc. 2.9kg of Nd-Fe-B) 1998 Toyota Celica GT has 543 magnets 1987 Yugo 45 (GV) has 9 magnets

9 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Computer apps Fujitsu 300 GB 2.5" SATA Hard Disk Drive

10 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Other apps

11 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Who makes RE-TM magnets?

12 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Processing Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 -type materials NdFe 4 B 4 Nd-rich Nd 2 Fe 14 B 50 micron Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 - the cast alloy Nd2Fe14B Ms = 1.6 Tesla Ha = 5 MA/m Tc = 320°C Nd-rich phase MP = ~630°C Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 - the magnet 50 micron Nd 2 Fe 14 B Nd-rich

13 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Sintered magnets Vacuum sintering Attritor milling Melt spinning Ribbons Powder HDDR process Casting Processing Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 -type materials

14 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Processing Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 -type by melt spinning Melt spinner Over-quenched amorphous ribbons NdFeB alloy crystalline ribbons bonded magnet (iso) hot-pressed magnet (iso) die-upset magnet (aniso) ~600 deg C

15 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Processing Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 -type by melt spinning Injection moulded (not fully dense isotropic) Hot pressed (fully dense isotropic) Die upset (fully dense anisotropic)

16 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Processing Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 -type by melt spinning

17 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Processing Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 -type by HDDR process 750 degC H2 vac 650 degC Nd 2 Fe 14 B NdH 2 + Fe + Fe 2 B Nd 2 Fe 14 B Isotropic and anisotropic forms are possible with small additions of Zr and Ga Nd-richNd-hydride

18 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Processing Nd 15 Fe 77 B 8 -type by HDDR process 10 microns Anisotropic structure that can be aligned to produce anisotropic bonded magnets

19 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia coercivity magnetisation 1000 kA/m 1 T anisotropic sintered aniso melt-spun die upset iso melt-spun hot pressed iso melt-spun injec mould iso HDDR injec mould iso HDDR bonded Properties of NdFeB magnets

20 Womeninnano winter school february kranjska gora slovenia Summary RE-TM magnets have a wide range of applications Properties depend on materials and processing A nano grain size and good microstructure is vital for good properties Good properties can be achieved with a range of techniques

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