4Key Elements of Support Sharing ControlFocusing on Children’s StrengthsForming Authentic RelationshipsSupporting Children’s playAdopting a Problem Solving Approach
5Contrasting Climates for Children Supportive(shared initiative)Directive(authoritarian)Laisses-Faire(permissive)CAACCAChildren constructknowledge throughinteractions withpeople and thingsIt happensChildren GrowTell children whatthey need to know
6Adult Interaction Styles What was the adult interaction style used in your family when you were growing up?How did this style affect you?How might each of these leadership styles look in the classroom? What might be the positive aspects of each style? What might be the negative aspects of each style?
7The Effects of a Restrictive climate Dependence on adultsDecreased initiativecompliance and conformityFear, aggressionDesire to avoid being caughtGuilt rather than problem solving
8The Effects of a Supportive Climate IndependenceConfidenceTrust in othersEmpathy and caringProblem solving
9Participating as a Partner Watch the classroom video clips and write down 3 things the adult does to support children’s play and learning.
10Adult Child Interaction Strategies Offer children comfort and contactConverse with childrenParticipate in children’s play by following children’s leadsEncourage children’s problem-solving
12I’m a SOUL Man!SilenceObservationUnderstandingListening
13SOULSilence –remain silent until you know what children are doing Observing —observe as children work to understand their actions Understanding—think about what you see children doing to fully understand what is happening Listening—listen to what children are saying so that you know what is important to them
14Practice SOUL Step 1 Watch silently As the child plays, position yourself on the child’s physical level.Watch and listen to the child to determine what kind of play the child is engaged in.Do not interact with the child
15Practice SOUL Step 2 Enter Non-Verbally The child continues play from step 1.Enter the child’s play non-verbally by following the child’s cues and using the materials in a way similar to the way the child is using them.
16Practice SOUL Step 3: Converse Continue to play with the materials following the child’s leads and ideas.Look for an opportunity for conversation. When one arises, converse using comments, observations, and acknowledgments (rather than questions).
17Interaction Style Checklist Complete the Checklist while thinking about yourown interaction style or those that you work with.
22Then children will think… Participating in children’s play says to them…I’m really interested in what you are doing!!I’m so interested, that I want to try it too!!!Then children will think…Wow!! I must be doing something great! The teacher wants to copy me!!22
23Encourage children to describe their own efforts, ideas and products Tell me how you’re making your sand castle.The teacher is interested in what I’m doing. I feel proud of myself23
24Acknowledging children’s work & ideas by making specific, descriptive comments I know whatto do!I see you’ve put away all the train tracks you were playing with.24
25P.M. Objectives Identify the 6 steps of conflict resolution Discuss and apply the guidelines for arranging and equiping the indoor play space.Assess current classroom arrangement and materials and prepare a plan for improvement.
26How would you react?You are stuck in a traffic jam with no end to the line of cars ahead of you.Just as the traffic seems to be opening up, a car comes racing up the shoulder of the road and cuts in front of you.
27Reactions to ConflictWhat are some possible reactions you might have? Don’t worry about whether they are positive or negative.If adults occasionally react strongly when they are upset, how can they expect children not to cry or respond in other ways to their own upset feelings.
28Feelings Feelings Feelings are Acknowledged CONFLICT ThoughtsFeelings are AcknowledgedCONFLICTFeelingsThoughtsThoughtsFeelings“Bailing” of Feelings
29Sources of Classroom Conflicts ObjectsSpacePrivilegeSocial
30Non-Classroom Sources of Conflict Unresolved arguments with siblings or parentsWitnessing violence at home or neighborhoodAnxiety over an impending event (moving, divorce, surgery)
316 Steps for Problem-Solving Approach calmly, stopping any hurtful actionsAcknowledge children’s feelingsGather informationRestate the problemAsk for ideas for solutions and choose one togetherBe prepared to give follow-up support
32Step1 Approach Calmly Be aware of body language Stay Neutral Kneel down to children’s levelDelay problem solving until you can be neutral
33Step 2 Acknowledging Feelings Use simple descriptive words (sad, angry, upset)Use words that reflect intensity of emotion (very, very upset)“You’re crying. You look very upset”
34Have you heard this?“Don’t be so upset. Stop crying. It’s not that important”“You didn’t really want this anyway”“Now stop crying. I’ll give you a piece of candy”
35When we try to comfort in this way, feelings often escalate for both the child and the adult.
36When a child senses that the adult really understands what he or she is experiencing, the child is reassured
37Step 3 Gather Information Ask what questions instead of why questionsListen for the details of the problem“It looks like there is a problem.What’s the problem?
38Step 4 Restate the problem Restate the details that you hear in children’s wordsReframe any hurtful comments“So the problem is…you want the bikeand James wants the bike.”
39Step 5 Ask for ideas for solutions and choose one together Encourage children’s ideas for solutions.Ask other children for solutions.When ideas are vague, ask “What will that look like?” or “What will you do?”“What can we do to solve this problem?”
40Step 6 Be prepared to give follow-up support Describe what children did that worked. Be sure to include the details.Check back on solution to make sure it’s still working.“You solved the problem.”“It looks like you’re still upset. We still have a problem.”
41Let’s watch the 6 steps in action with preschoolers!
42What do children learn when adults facilitate problem-solving? to express strong emotions in non-hurting waysto appreciate one’s own views but also the views of others (There are lots of possibilities for solutions.)to make decisions intelligently and ethicallyTo listen to others
52Choose materials that reflect children’s interests
53Choose materials that are appropriate for the children’s developmental levels
54Provide items that can be used in a variety of ways. (Open-ended)
55Choose materials that support the different types of play that are typical of young children.
56Materials that reflect the experiences and cultures of the children in the program, and that reflect human diversity in unbiased ways.
57Open-Ended Materials: Remember:The more the toy does by itself,the less the child learns!Materials that can be used in an infinitenumber of ways and accommodate easily tochildren’s different interests and developmentalneeds
58Sample Materials List Circle the materials you have in your classroom Complete the chart on page X using ideas from the sample list or the scavenger hunt.
60Store materials so that children can reach them Use see-through containers or open baskets to store materials in plain view.
61Make sure materials are consistently stored in the same place. Store like items together
62LabelingLabel shelves and containers so children can find and put away materials.
63Use labels that children can read Toothbrush taped to containerDrawing of the trains
64Outline of plastic lids Photocopy of a phonePicture from catalog or packaging
65Labeling Tips Make 2 separate labels One for the container. The other to the shelf. Make the shelf label the same size and color as the containerLaminate labels or cover labels with clear contact paper. Store labels with the materials or set up a file system to organize labels when not in use.
66Environmental IssuesOn a strip of paper write down a learning environment issue that you have in your classroom or program.In your table group, come up with some possible solutions to the issues you are given and write each idea separately on a sticky note and attach it to the paper strip.
67Learning Environment Implementation Plan Complete the implementation plan on page