THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE 1.Form 2.The Form of the Past Participle 3. Usage
positive negative I You have + v.pp I You have not + v.pp They /We / You have + v.pp They/We / You have not +v.pp He / She/It has + v.pp He / She /It has not + v.pp question answer Have you /they + v.pp ? Yes, I(we,they) have. No,I(we, they) have not. Has he she it + v.pp ? Yes,he(she,it) has. No,he(she,it) has not.
There are two forms.,regular and irregular Regular: verb+ed Examples: start-started, open- opened, stay-stayed arrive-arrived, solve-solved, hope-hoped study-studied, carry-carried, try-tried plan-planned, stop-stopped, admit- admitted Irregular: Examples: go-gone, see-seen, lose-lost, forget- forggoton (see SHB p.118)
A. To denote that the action has been ended up to now or just ended,often used with the adverbs“recently, lately,already,or yet,or just”. B. The action happened in the past, but denote the experience, often contains the adverbs like “ever, never, or before”. C. To express the action happened in the past, and has continued to the present,maybe will go on, often used with the adverbial “for… …” or “since … …” or “always”. eg
Eg. 1.I have (already) finished my work. 2.We have set up many new factories. 3.He hasn’t had breakfast (yet). 4.Have you received your sister’s letter recently? 5.They have (just) come back.
Eg. 1.Have you ever seen the film? 2. I have spent three years on an army farm. 3.He has never swum in the sea. 4. They haven’t met each other before.
Eg. 1.--How long have you been in Taiyuan? --I have been in Taiyuan for 20 years( since 1981). 2.Two years have passed since I came to the school. 3.The weather has always been good.
Note: 1).In the following, the verb of the main clause is habitually used the simple present tense. e.g. It is three years since I began to work in the factory. It’s a long time since I saw you last. 2).The present perfect tense can contain the adverbial including present, such as “now, today, this month and so on”. e.g. We have learned five lessons this term. I have received 2 letters today. 继 续
3). The verb to be in the perfect tense. --Where have you been? --I have been to the laboratory. --How have you been? --I have been very well, thank you. --Have you ever been to Beijing? --No, I’ve never been there. Cmp. Have gone to
1.. upset a. A. adj.feeling unhappy He is upset about what he told him. b. B. adj.worried The boy hasn’t come back from school.The mother is upset. c. C. adj. Slightly ill He has got an upset stomach. d. D. v. to knock over The boy upset a cup of coffee. / Her plans were upset by the change in the weather. e. E. v. cause to worry His violent temper upset the children. f. F. v. to make ill in the stomach The foreign food upset my stomach.. Cont.
2. busy He is busy (in) writing. The boss is busy with some important work. The man was busy at work when someone called him on the phone. Cont.
3. plenty of ---as much/many as one needs There is plenty of time. There are plenty of eggs in the basket. Cont.
4. get over—recover or get better I can’t get over his rudeness.(recover from the surprise at his rudeness) She can’t get over her shyness.(overcome) Cont.
5. once They once knew her, but they are no long friends. (adv. some time ago) Once he arrives, we can start. Some phrases concerning once at once once upon a time once in a while all at once once more/again END