Presentation on theme: "ISE 311 Forging Lab in conjunction with Sections (ch. 3), 19"— Presentation transcript:
1ISE 311 Forging Lab in conjunction with Sections 3. 1. 2 (ch. 3), 19 ISE 311 Forging Lab in conjunction with Sections (ch. 3), 19.3 & 19.4 (ch. 19) from the text book “Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing” Third Edition Mikell P. Groover 3/25/20081
2Outline Introduction Forging – Basic Principles Forging – Terminology Objectives of the forging labForging – materials and equipmentForging examples – simulationsSummary
3IntroductionUpsetting or Upset Forging is the simplest case of open-die forging involving compression of a workpiece between two flat dies. Upset forging reduces the height of the workpiece but increases its cross-sectional area. We will consider upsetting of a round billet.Under ideal conditions where there is no friction between the work piece and the dies, the billet deforms homogeneously (the cylindrical shape of the billet remains cylindrical throughout the process). But in practical conditions the billet tends to barrel since there is some friction.
4IntroductionThe ring compression test is used to evaluate lubrication in forging by measuring forces and dimensional changes in the specimen.In this test, a flat ring is deformed (upset) between two flat platens. As the height of the ring is reduced, its outside diameter increases.If there were no friction between the dies and workpiece both the inner and outer diameters of the ring would expand. However, for large friction at material/ die interface, the internal diameter of the ring is reduced with increasing deformation.
5IntroductionHomogeneous upsetting of a cylindrical billet (without friction)Practical upsetting of a cylindrical billet (with friction & barreling)Figure 19.10, GrooverV1 = upper die velocityDo, D, D1 = average billet diameters before, during and at the end of deformationFigure 19.11, Grooverho, h, h1 = billet heights before, during and at the end of deformation
6IntroductionUpsetting of a ring with good lubrication (μ is low) and bad lubrication (μ is high)Figure 32.2, Kalpakjian
7Terminology In homogeneous upsetting / no friction: ho = starting height of workpiece (before deformation)h = instantaneous height of the work piece (at an intermediate press stroke)F = instantaneous upsetting forceA = instantaneous cross sectional area of the workpiece(1)(2)
8Terminology In homogeneous upsetting: (3) K = strength coefficient, n = strain hardening coefficientF increases with deformation (press stroke) since Yf and A both increase with deformation and strain (Eqs. (1), (3) & (4))(3)(4)
9TerminologyPractical Upsetting of a cylindrical workpiece (with friction & barreling):Where = coefficient of friction (0.05 – 0.3)D = instantaneous workpiece diameter, mm (in),h = instantaneous workpiece height, mm (in)(5)(6)
10The Ring Compression Test The chart seen to the right gives the calibration curves for a specific ring geometry (OD:ID:Height = 6:3:2) and for different coefficients of friction, μ.In this chart, the variation of the % change in internal diameter is given for % reduction in height of the compressed ring.After the ring compression test is completed, the ID and height of the upset ring are measured and the % reduction of each is found. From the location of this experimental point on the chart, μ can be estimated.
11Cold, warm and hot forging The forging operation (and metal forming operations ingeneral) can be performed at various temperaturesranges:Where Tm is the melting temperature of the metalNote: for most metals, recrystallization occurs between 30% and 50% ofThe melting temperatureCold forgingT < 0.3 TmWarm forging0.3 Tm < T < 0.5 TmHot forgingT > 0.5 Tm and usually less than Tm
12Cold, warm and hot forging Cold forging vs. Hot forging:You have to think about the reasons behind each of theabove mentioned pointsColdHotStrength/ hardness of the forged billetHigherLowerDuctility/ ability to produce intricate shapesForce/ energy/ machine capacity requiredLoad on the tools (dies)Tool wearLessMoreDimensional accuracyBetterWorseSurface finishThe need for heating equipmentNoYesBarreling (uniformity of deformation)
13Objectives This lab has the following objectives: Understand fundamentals of the forging processObserve the effects of frictional forces in forging processCompare material properties of forged parts with respect to working temperature
14Objectives Students will be able to: Perform an upsetting test on specimens of two different materials (steel and aluminum)Use proper equipment terminology, and know the parameters to control during the testMeasure and collect the force and height data and observe the barreling effectsCompare the forces measured in the laboratory tests with the calculated forces with and without friction effect
15Upsetting And Hot Forging Test Materials and EquipmentOBI (Open Back Inclinable) mechanical press with the LoadGard system to measure the upsetting forceUpset tooling, tongs, acetylene torchSpecimens: (1) Aluminum, (2) SteelDial CalipersSafety Equipment and InstructionsSafety glasses with side shields are required during the entire lab periodPay attention and follow the lab instructor’s directionsDo not use your hand to put or remove specimens on the die. Instead, use the supplied tongsTurn off the OBI press when ever you need to adjust the press slide setting (shut height etc.)Do not touch the forged specimens with your bare hands until they cool down to room temperature
16Mechanical Presses Used in Forging Shut height adjustment modifies the length of the connecting rod and changes the bottom position of the slideRam or SlideFrameConnecting RodFlywheelEccentric ShaftThe drive system used in most mechanical presses is based on a slider-crank mechanism that translates rotary motion into reciprocating motion.
17Slider-crank Mechanism TDCBDCConnecting RodShut Height AdjustmentForceBDC = Bottom Dead CenterBottom position of the slideTDC = Top Dead CenterTop position of the slideThe length of connecting rod determines the TDC and BDC or shut height. Its length can be modified.The total slide stroke S = 2r is unchanged
18OBI press used for forging tests FlywheelLoad reading systemShut height adjustmentPower box to start and stop the pressYellow pedal to cycle the pressConnecting rodPress slide
19Forging Shims and shut height adjustment: One of the 5 Shims Screw for shut height adjustmentHandle to adjust the strokeOne of the 5 ShimsSlot to place handle and rotate slide screw
20The Loadgard and the power box of the press Load ReadingReset ButtonStart ButtonStop Button
21Hardness testing machine Hardness ReadingIndenterHandle to load the specimenPlate on which to place the specimen
22Forging Test Specimen before deformation: The upsetting can be conducted with either a round bar or ring specimen.The round bar specimen is used for the current test.The specimen is placed on the lower die and deformation is applied using the motion of the top die.
23Forging Dial Calipers to measure the dimensions of the test specimen: The height of the specimen during testing is measured using dial calipers.As the specimen is compressed using 5 different slide positions, the dial calipers are used to measure the dimensions of the specimen after each stroke.
24Simple Upsetting – Test Procedure Obtain one steel billet and one aluminum billet from the lab instructorMeasure and record the initial dimensions of the billets (OD & height); OD is the outer diameterMeasure the hardness for the steel billet in three different locations.Set the OBI press for the first step/shut height in the upsetting process (shim 1)Using tongs, insert one of the billets into the tooling. Try to place it as close to the center of the upsetting platen as possibleStep on the yellow pedal to cycle the press one time
25Simple Upsetting – Test Procedure Record the press load from the Loadgard system. (note: after recording the load, make sure to reset the Loadgard system in order to prevent false reading for the next measurement)Use the tongs to remove the deformed billetMeasure and record its new heightRepeat steps 4-9 for each of the other billetsAdjust the press for the next deformation (shims 2 through 5) Repeat steps 4-9 for a total of 5 deformation steps. (caution: the flywheel on the punch press must stop, which means the OBI press must be turned off, before changing shut height)Measure the hardness for the steel billet in three different locationsMark the steel billet such that it can be identified as the cold forging sample and keep it for comparison with the hot forging sample
26Ring Compression – Test Procedure Obtain one steel ring and one aluminum ring from the lab instructorMeasure and record the initial dimensions of the billets (OD: Outer Diameter, ID: Internal Diameter, & height)Set the OBI press for the first step/shut height in the upsetting process (shim 1)Place the specimen on the height block and place the block with the specimen on it as close as possible to the center of the upsetting platenStep on the yellow pedal to cycle the press one time
27Ring Compression – Test Procedure Set the OBI press for the second step/shut height in the ring compression test (shim 2)Repeat steps 4 & 5 for the yellow shimMeasure and record all dimensions of the specimen (OD, ID, and height)
28Hot Forging – Test Procedure Obtain one steel billet from the lab instructorYou will assume that the initial and final dimensions are the same as for sample 2 in part 1 (cold forging).Measure the hardness for the steel billet in three different locations.Set the OBI press for the final step/shut height in the upsetting process (shim 5)Using the acetylene torch, heat the specimen until it is glowing redUsing tongs, insert the hot billet into the tooling placing it as close as possible to the center of the upsetting platen
29Hot Forging – Test Procedure Step on the yellow pedal to cycle the press one timeMeasure the load and the hardness (at 3 locations)Note1: the specimen should be allowed to cool slowly (should not be quenched)as this may affect the hardness.Note2: The function of the flywheel in a mechanical press is to store kineticenergy. This energy is used to form the workpiece. If the height reductionreached in a single stage is very large, the energy required, which is taken fromthe flywheel, may be large enough to slow down the flywheel very rapidly. Toavoid this, deformation is done in stages and enough time between these stagesis provided for the motor to build up the flywheel rotational speed to its idlespeed.
30Summary – Forging Lab Specimen before and after the compression: Original SpecimenBarreled Specimen after compression
31Summary – Forging Lab Specimen before and after the compression: DoD1 (avg)h1hoD1 (average) can be calculated from volume constancy, i.e.,
32Original steel specimen Summary – Forging LabComparison of cold and hot forging:Steel specimenafter cold forging(5 steps/hits)Original steel specimenSteel specimenafter hot forging
33Summary – Forging LabComparison of original ring specimens to deformed rings:Aluminum specimenafter cold forging(2 steps/hits)Original aluminumspecimenOriginal steelspecimenSteel specimenafter cold forging(2 steps/hits)
34Finite Element (FE) Simulations The next several slides illustrate the simulation of the cylinder, ring, and hot cylinder compression tests, generated by FEA.The following slides include:- Cold upsetting of Al 1100 cylinders (σ = 25.2 ε0.304 Ksi)- Comparison of Al 1100 and Steel AISI 1010 (σ = ε0.22Ksi) upsetting with respect to forging load- Illustration of the effect of μ on the internal diameter in ringcompression test of Steel AISI 1010- Comparison between the upsetting of Steel AISI 1015 at roomtemperature (68 oF: σ=117.5 ε0.15 Ksi) and at elevated temperature(1112 oF: σ=54.7 ε0.072 Ksi)
35Simple upsetting simulation Cold upsetting of Aluminum 1100σ = 25.2 ε0.304 Ksiμ = 0.12Stage A Stage B Stage CNote the barreling
36Simple upsetting simulation Load-Stroke curves for Al 1100 (previous simulation) and SteelAISI 1010σAl = 25.2 ε0.304 Ksiσsteel = ε0.22 Ksiμ = 0.12Note how material properties affect the upsetting force
37Ring compression simulation Ring compression of Steel AISI 1010 (σ = ε 0.22 Ksi) with twodifferent Friction coefficients: note how increasing μ reduces the final internaldiameter. This idea will be used in the lab to determine μBeforeAfter (μ = 0.12)After (μ = 0.3)Note the change in internal diameter
38Hot vs. Cold upsettingA comparison between cold and hot upsetting of steel: note the following:1- The load in cold forging > hot forging2- Barreling in cold forging < hot forgingColdHot
39Summary – Upsetting Lab This lab preparation material introduced:The basic principles of the forging (upsetting, ring compression, and hot upsetting) and the terminology used (stress, strain, barreling, forging shape factor)The objectives of and the expected outcomes from the evaluation of test results.The testing equipment and the test procedureFE simulations