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Challenges of Single Event Upset and Transient Testing and Characterization of Mixed Signal Products Kirby Kruckmeyer.

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Presentation on theme: "Challenges of Single Event Upset and Transient Testing and Characterization of Mixed Signal Products Kirby Kruckmeyer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Challenges of Single Event Upset and Transient Testing and Characterization of Mixed Signal Products Kirby Kruckmeyer

2 2 Agenda Overview of National Semiconductor’s radiation programs Standards and guidelines for Single Event Effect (SEE) testing of mixed signal products –Test conditions –Reporting Errors –Single Event Upset and Transient Definitions Challenges for SEE testing Case Studies –Ultra High Speed Analog to Digital Converter –Ultra Low Power Digital to Analog Converter Summary

3 3 30+ years in the Space Market –QMLV qualified products –One of only 10 RHA (Radiation Hardness Assured) QML suppliers Radiation Testing –TID 60 Co gamma cell in South Portland, Maine and Santa Clara, California –ELDRS: ELDRS Free products –SEE: SEL, SEU and SET testing Per EIA/JEDEC JESD57 and ESA/SCC World class Supply Chain Management –Dedicated space program managers National - A Major Space Supplier

4 4 Radiation process developed to improve total dose performance - National’s Scotland plant –LM13710 krad30 krad –LF41110 krad50 krad –LM10110 krad50 krad –LM11110 krad100 krad –LM13610 krad100 krad –LM15810 krad100 krad –LM12410 krad100 krad –LM13910 krad100 krad –LM11710 krad100 krad –LM117HV3 krad100 krad –LP kradIn Process Continue to work on radiation performance for existing devices BeforeToday Total Dose Improvements on Legacy Products

5 5 We test them so you don’t have to Every wafer tested and qualified at low dose rates –per Mil-Std-883 method 1019 condition D –Low dose rate of 10 mrad/s (36 rad/hr) –Biased and unbiased DSCC unique low dose rate certified part numbers ELDRS Free Products LM111 LM117 LM124 LM LM139 LM158 LM193 LMP2012 Low Dose Rate Qualified LM117HV Products in Qualification LM101 LM119 LM137 LM6142 LM185 LM2940 LM2941 ELDRS-Free Products! ELDRS-Free LM139

6 6 National is more than just the LM124 Recent New Product Releases: ADC08D1000WGFQV1 GS/s 8 bit Analog to Digital Converter ADC08D1520WGFQV1.5 GS/s 8 bit Analog to Digital Converter ADC128S102WGRQVGeneral Purpose 12 bit Analog to Digital Converter – mW Power DAC121S101WGRQVGeneral Purpose 12 bit Digital to Analog Converter – mW Power LMP2012WGLQMLVPrecision Rail to Rail Operational Amplifier ADC14155WGRQV155 MS/s 14 bit Analog to Digital Converter

7 7 How to test a Mixed Signal Part Mixed signal inputs and outputs –How do you monitor it all? What supply voltage? –Many parts have wide operating ranges –What is worst case? VAVA D OUT V IN CLOCK OUT CONTROL LOGIC CLOCK CHIP SELECT V OUT D IN Static or dynamic inputs? –A 1 GS/s ADC will never be used with static inputs –How to monitor a product in dynamic mode? No universal test system

8 8 Testing Guidance- Limited For Mixed Signal Products Test development typically starts with FPGA’s and memories, then moves to analog parts. Mixed signal products are usually an afterthought –Sandia proton spec in development - using memories as driver –NASA new SEE guidelines (digitally oriented) and Linear SEE Testing Guidelines Standards – Oriented towards digital products –EIA/JEDEC StandardJESD57 Only mentions bit flips; no guidance on analog outputs or transients No mention of mixed signal products –ASTM Standard GuideF 1192 – 00 Two definitions for transients, but no guidance on testing for them No mention of mixed signal products –ESA/SCC Basic Specification25100 “Analogue and mixed analogue/digital technologies may generate false outputs or transients as the result of SEE. Test system shall be capable of monitoring and logging these effects.”

9 9 How to Report the Results? - Digital Is it “errors per bit” or some other measure? “Errors per bit” is a standard metric for digital product –Customers put “errors per bit” in PO’s for all kinds of products –Some datasheets report “errors per bit” on products like PLL’s Does not make sense for most mixed signal products? –What is a bit in a PLL? –ADC bits have varying values and impact ADC: should be reported as complete “code errors” PLL’s and clocks: should be reported as output “error rate”

10 10 How to Report the Results? - Analog Is it a transient (SET) or upset (SEU)? SET and SEU are used interchangeably for reporting errors on analog outputs Upset has a clear definition: a logic state change or bit flip No consensus on definition of SET –JESD57 and ESA/SCC have no definition –ASTM F 1192 – 00 has two single event transient-SET is a self correcting upset (change) of state of a bit induced by a single ion strike single event transients (SET)-SET’s are SE-caused electrical transients that are propagated to the outputs of combinational logic IC’s. Depending upon system application of these combinational logic IC’s, SET’s can cause system SEU. –Different definitions by NASA and others DSET – Transients generated from the digital portion of the product ASET – Transients generated from the analog portion of the product Analog outputs: should be reported as transients

11 11 V in B f1 B F2 ADC bank 1 B F2 ADC bank 2 phi1 phi2 S S2 LVDS Output B f1 B F2 ADC bank 1 B F2 ADC bank 2 phi1 phi2 LVDS Output Input MUX with Calibration Circuit I+ I-I- Q+ Q-Q- Control Logic V BG ÷2÷2 Output Clock Generator V REF CLK+ CLK - CLK/2 Control Inputs Serial Interface 3 DI DId DQ DQd T/H S S1 S S2 1.5Ghz 750 Mhz Case Study: ADC08D1520WGFQV 8 b Analog to Digital Converter

12 12 ADC08D1520WGFQV Testing Need to monitor –Digital outputs Output codes –Clock outputDifferential output –Control logicDid part setup change –CalibrationDid calibration drift –Supply currentsAnalog and output driver supplies SEE testing –Latchup (SEL) –Functional Interrupt (SEFI) –Upset (SEU) –Transient (SET) –Dynamic Inputs

13 13 ADC08D1520WGFQV Test Challenges No easy test system –Production test system run $750K to $1.5M and are not portable High speed testing (1 GHz or greater) difficult in the field –Coupling seen between the various input and output signals –Heaters for SEL testing can add noise –Remote power supply and supply current monitoring can degrade performance –Worse in vacuum chamber, with feed throughs Considerations if using an FPGA to monitor outputs –Using a separate clock for the FPGA could add more noise –If using ADC clock for FPGA, clock upsets could impact output results –Monitoring the output clock of ADC can impact the FPGA performance Control registers and calibration circuits cannot be monitored in real time How to detect upsets with dynamic input and output

14 14 Solution – Two Setups Output SEU –Dedicated board for clean signals and high resolution output– noise floor 5 LSB –Onboard FPGA to monitor output –Clean clock output line to FPGA –Onboard regulator –Use Beat Frequency and Code Error Test Method for dynamic testing SEL, SEFI and Clock SEU –Output signal not as critical –Remote power supply with monitor and heaters for SEL –FIFO instead of FPGA so output clock could be monitored –Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) run before and after each ion run to monitor SEFI

15 15 Beat Frequency and Code Error Test Method Beat Frequency allows part to be tested with input frequency close to 2X Nyquist –Output = sample rate – input signal –Set the input frequency so that the output will change by less than 1 LSB per clock cycle Code Error routine calculates the output delta from one clock cycle to the next –An error is recorded if the output delta is more than some threshold –Set to 6 LSB due to the background noise at the test facility InputOutput

16 16 ADC08D1520WGFQV SEE Test Results Output code SEU –Errors are not bit flips in the digital output, they are code errors caused by transients –Error magnitude dependent upon the input voltage Output clock SEU –Two types of errors seen –Signal attenuation –Phase shift

17 17 ADC08D1520WGFQV Cross Section Curves Output upset cross section Shown in terms of complete code errors upset events and not errors per bit Figure of Merit Calculation: 3.6 x upsets per month Outage time (factoring in upset length): 5.8 ns per month Clock upset cross section Shown in terms of upset events Figure of Merit Calculation: 4.0 x upsets per month Outage time (factoring in upset length): 2.1 ps per month

18 18 Case study: DAC121S101WGRQV 12 b Digital to Analog Converter How should a Digital to Analog Converter be tested? What operating conditions cause the worst case? –Cross section –Transient amplitude and pulse width Operating conditions? –Supply voltage –Inputs

19 19 Standards suggest lowest operating voltage –EIA/JESD 57 “As a rule, the worst case condition is at minimum operating voltage” –ASTM F1192 “A lower bias (minimum of the specified operating range) promotes bit- flips….” For analog products, testing shows that maximum operating voltage and minimum input bias is sometimes the worst case Worst Case Conditions for SET for a Mixed-Signal Part??? LM139LM124 Source: “Testing Guidelines for Single Event Transient (SET) Testing of Linear Devices” C. Poivoy, et al, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

20 20 DAC121S101WGRQV 12 b Digital to Analog Converter 2.7 V to 5.5 V Supply Voltage Range (1.43 mW)

21 21 DAC121S101WGRQV 12 b Digital to Analog Converter 2.7 V to 5.5 V Supply Voltage Range (1.43 mW) Serial input (code range: 0 to 4095) 20 MHz

22 22 DAC121S101WGRQV 12 b Digital to Analog Converter 2.7 V to 5.5 V Supply Voltage Range (1.43 mW) Serial input (code range: 0 to 4095) Rail to rail voltage output 20 MHz

23 23 Test Conditions DAC121S101 Eval Board Setup inside chamber Tested with static input - typical application

24 24 Dependence on Supply Voltage SET Cross Section vs. LET for input code = 3482

25 25 Transient Signatures Positive Negative

26 26 Negative transient dependence on input code Input code = % of full scale

27 27 Negative transient dependence on input code Input code = % of full scale

28 28 Negative transient dependence on input code Input code = % of full scale Input code = % of full scale

29 29 Negative transient dependence on input code Input code = % of full scale Input code % of full scale Input code = % of full scale

30 30 Summary Testing mixed signal products can be complex and challenging There are very few standards or guidelines for testing mixed signal products Some unique test methods are needed Mixed signal Single Event Transient and Upset responses can be very different than for either pure digital or pure analog products It is necessary to characterize a product over all application conditions that will be used

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