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Carbohydrates (CHO), Protein, Fats.  Nutrition The study of how your body uses the food that you eat.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates (CHO), Protein, Fats.  Nutrition The study of how your body uses the food that you eat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbohydrates (CHO), Protein, Fats

2  Nutrition The study of how your body uses the food that you eat

3  A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. Some provide energy. All help build cells and tissues, regulate bodily processes such as breathing. No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function Nutrients

4  Protein  Fat  Carbohydrate  Vitamins  Minerals  Water 6 Classifications of Nutrients Sugars Starches Cellulose

5  Calorie  A unit of measure for energy in food What is a Calorie?

6  Protein = 4 calories per gram  Fat = 9 calories per gram  Carbohydrate = 4 calories per gram Calories Per Gram

7  Carbohydrates  Any of various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (as sugars, starches, and celluloses) most of which are formed by green plants and which constitute a major class of animal foods Carbs

8 Carbohydrates  Digestion convert all CHO to glucose  Glucose fates  Stored as glycogen in muscle and liver  Converted to fat for energy storage

9 Carbohydrates Simple sugars—including dextrose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, white sugar, corn syrup, and honey—that are quickly and easily absorbed into the bloodstream

10  Quick energy  Sugars found naturally in foods  Added sugars  Food labels end in “-ose”  Lactose  Fructose Simple Carbohydrates

11 Carbohydrates Complex a polysaccharide, such as a carbohydrate, that is composed of a large number of glucose molecules, so called to distinguish it from a simple sugar

12  Sustained/long term energy  Starches [complex carbohydrate] (pasta, rice, breads)  What’s good about fiber? Complex Carbohydrates

13  Eat more fruits and vegetables  Eat whole grain foods Ways to Get More Fiber

14  Soluble Fiber-dissolves in water  oatmeal, oat cereal, apples, oranges, pears, oat bran, strawberries, nuts, flaxseeds, beans, dried peas, blueberries, cucumbers, celery, and carrots.  attract water and form a gel which slows down digestion  delays the emptying of your stomach and makes you feel full, which helps control weight. Dietary Fiber

15  Insoluble Fiber- does not dissolves in waste  Does not break down in digestive tract so they pass through the gastrointestinal tract relatively intact, and speed up the passage of food and waste through your gut  Helps with regularity, retains water, makes stools softer  Whole wheat bread, brown rice, most vegetables Fiber Cont.

16  Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids Proteins

17  Amino Acids  The building block of protein in which each is coded for by a codon and linked together through peptide bonds  20 amino acids  Essential  Non-essential Proteins

18 Body cannot produce them  9 essential amino acids  Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Threonine, Lycine, Histidine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, Methionine Esssential

19  Non-essential  Body produces them  11 non-essential  Non-essential does not imply that these amino acids are not important. Non-essential simply means that these amino acids are not needed in the diet since the body can manufacture them from other substrates. The 9 essential amino acids, however, must be supplied by the diet since they cannot be synthesized. Non-essential

20  Complete-Animal Source  Contain all 9 essential amino acids  meats, dairy  Incomplete- Plant Source  Do not contain all 9 essential amino acids  beans, nuts, legumes, grains Sources of Proteins

21  Animal proteins provide all 9 essential amino acids along with most of the other non-essential ones and are therefore, they are called complete proteins.  Vegetable proteins provide some of the essential amino acids but not all of them so they are called incomplete proteins. With a balanced diet individuals can get sufficient amounts of protein from these vegetable sources Side Note

22  The body doesn’t have a large storage depot for protein, as it does for carbohydrate and fat. The protein we eat from food has to be handled as we eat it. Like rookies sitting on the bench waiting for their chance to play, the amino acids in the pool are ready and waiting to be utilized. Either the amino acids are used within a limited time to build a body protein, or they are transformed.  If amino acids in the pool aren’t needed to become a protein, the body is equipped to reconfigure them either back to glucose to be used as energy or into fat Excessive Protein

23  A natural oily or greasy substance occurring in animal bodies, esp. when deposited as a layer under the skin or around certain organs Fats

24  Adipose Tissue  a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; it also cushions and insulates vital organs  Where is adipose tissue in the body?  Beneath skin, internal organs, bone marrow, Fats

25  Saturated Fatty Acids- animal  a fatty acid whose carbon chain cannot absorb any more hydrogen atoms; found chiefly in animal fats  saturated (solid at room temperature)  Animal fats (fat in cheese, eggs, meat) are saturated Saturated

26  Unsaturated Fatty Acids- Vegetable  a fatty acid whose carbon chain can absorb additional hydrogen atoms  unsaturated (liquid at room temperature)  Vegetable fats (vegetable oils) are unsaturated  Unsaturated 2 groups  Poly-unsatrated  Mono-unsatrated Unsaturated

27 Type SatPoly Mono safflower sunflower corn soybean sesame peanut palm olive canola Composition of Oils (%)

28  Oils vary in the degree of saturated and unsaturated fats.  In general it is best to use oils that contain a higher percentage of mono-unsaturated fats (olive / canola).  Comparison of the types of fats and their effect on health:  Saturated fats - increase cholesterol levels  Poly-unsaturated fats - have little effect on cholesterol  Mono-unsaturated fats - can lower levels of blood cholesterol

29  The process of hydrogenation is used to convert unsaturated vegetable oils into saturated fats (margarine) This process forms "trans"- fatty acids instead of the natural fatty acids that occur naturally in saturated fats.  Partially Hydrated is not good at all. Look at labels Trans-fatty acids

30  only essential fatty acids, cant be made in body  reduce triglycerides, heart rate, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis, crucial role in brain function and normal growth and development.triglyceridesheart rateblood pressureatherosclerosis  Fish found in cold waters, such as salmon, mackerel and sardines, have the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acids.  Omega 6 is found in corn, safflower, sunflower, soybean and cottonseed oils Omega 3 & 6 fatty acids

31 Compound Lipid: Lipoproteins  High Density Lipoproteins  Low Density Lipoproteins

32  Cholesterol  occurs in all animal tissues, especially in the brain, spinal cord, and adipose tissue, functioning chiefly as a protective agent in the skin and myelin sheaths of nerve cells, a detoxifier in the bloodstream, and as a precursor of many steroids  LDL  the cholesterol in low-density lipoproteins; the ‘bad’ cholesterol; a high level in the blood is thought to be related to various pathogenic conditions  HDL  the cholesterol in high-density lipoproteins; the ‘good’ cholesterol; a high level in the blood is thought to lower the risk of coronary artery disease Fats

33  LDL causes blockage of arteries, atherosclerosis. Less dense than HDL, deposit onto walls of arteries, causing plaques. High LDL cholesterol levels increase the risk of heart attacks  HDL scavenges LDL and takes it to liver for reprocessing, scrubs vessels clean chemically, higher levels of HDL are good Lipids Cont.

34 Recommended Dietary Intake CHO CHO (55-60%) FAT FAT (<30%) PRO PRO (10-15%)

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