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Planning for Security Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Planning for Security Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Planning for Security Chapter 5

2 Information Security Quality security programs begin & end with policy. Primarily management problem, not technical one.

3 Information Security Policies
Form basis for all IS security planning Direct how issues should be addressed Don’t specify proper operation of equipment or software Should never contradict law Obligates personnel to function in manner that adds to security of info Least expensive control to execute Most difficult to implement properly Standup in court if challenged Be properly administered through dissemination and documented acceptance

4 Policy Plan or course of action Convey instructions
Organizational laws Dictate acceptable and unacceptable behavior Define What is right What is wrong The appeal process What are the penalties for violating policy Written to support the mission, vision and strategic plan of org

5 Standards Detail statements of what must be done to comply with policy
Types Informal – de facto standards Formal – de jure standards

6 Policies, Standards, and Practices
Policies are sanctioned by senior management Standards are built on should policy and carry the weight of policy Practices, procedures, and guidelines include detailed steps required Policies Standards Practices Procedures Guidelines Drive

7 Mission/Vision/Strategic Plan
Mission – written statement of organization purpose Vision – written statement of organization goals Strategic Plan - written statement of moving the organization toward its mission

8 Policies Security Policy Information security policy Three types
Set of rules that protects & organization's assets Information security policy Set of rules protects organization’s information assets Three types General or Enterprise Issue-specific System-specific

9 EISP Enterprise Information Security Policy Executive level document
General Information Security Document 2-10 pages in length Shapes the philosophy of security in IT Contains requirements to be met Assigns responsibilities Addresses legal compliance

10 ISSP Issue-Specific Security Policy
Addresses specific areas of technology Requires frequent updates Contains statement on organization’s position on specific issue

11 3 Approaches to ISSP Independent document tailored to a specific issue
Scattered approach Departmentalized Single comprehensive document covering all issues Centralized management and control Tend to over generalize the issue Skip vulnerabilities

12 3 Approaches to ISSP Modular plan
Unified policy creation and administration Maintain each specific issue’s requirements Provide balance

13 Elements of Issue-Specific Security Policy Statement
Statement of Policy Appropriate Use Systems management Violations of policy Policy review and modification Limitations of Liability

14 Statement of Policy Clear statement of policy
Fair and responsible use of the Internet What is the scope of the policy? Responsible person What technologies and issues are addressed?

15 Appropriate Use Who can use the technology What it can be used for
Defines “fair and reasonable use” What can it cannot be used for

16 Systems Management Focus on user’s relationship to systems management
Regulating Use of Storage of materials Authorized monitoring of employees Scrutiny of and electronic documents

17 Violations of Policy Give guidance on penalties and repercussions of violating policy Specifics on penalties How to report violations

18 Policy Review and Modification
Procedures and a timetable for periodic review Specific methodology for review Specific methodology for modification

19 Limitations of Liability
Set of disclaimers If employee violates policy or law, the company will not protect them Company is not liable for actions of employees

20 SysSP System-Specific Policy
Frequently codified as standards & procedures Used when configuring or maintaining system Example Access Control Lists (ACLs) Configuration rules

21 Continuity Strategies
Continuous availability of info systems Probability high for attack Managers must be ready to act Contingency Plan (CP) Prepared by organization Anticipate, react to, & recover from attacks Restore organization to normal operations

22 Components of Contingency Plan
Planning Incident Response (Focus on immediate response) Disaster Recovery (Focus on restoring system) Business Continuity (Focus establish business functions at alternate site)

23 Figure 5-22 – Contingency Planning Timeline

24 Figure 5-23 – Major Steps in Contingency Planning
Business Impact Analysis The first phase in the development of the CP process is the Business Impact Analysis or BIA. A BIA is an investigation and assessment of the impact that various attacks can have on the organization, and takes up where the Risk Assessment process leaves off. The BIA assumes that these controls have been bypassed, have failed, or are otherwise ineffective in stopping the attack, and that the attack was successful. The question asked at this point is, if the attack succeeds, what do we do then? The CP team conducts the BIA in the following stages: Threat Attack identification Business unit analysis Attack success scenarios Potential damage assessment Subordinate plan classification Threat Attack Identification and Prioritization Most organizations have already performed the tasks of identifying and prioritizing threats. All that is required now is to update the threat list with the latest developments and add one additional piece of information, the attack profile. An attack profile is a detailed description of the activities that occur during an attack, must be developed for every serious threat the organization faces and are used to determine the extent of damage that could result to a business unit if the attack were successful. Business Unit Analysis The second major task within the BIA is the analysis and prioritization of business functions within the organization. The intent of this task is to identify the functional areas of the organization and prioritize them to determine which are most vital to the continued operations of the organization. Efforts in function analysis focus on the result of a prioritized list of the various functions the organization performs. Attack Success Scenario Development Next the BIA team must create a series of scenarios depicting the impact a successful attack from each threat could have on each prioritized functional area with details on the method of attack, the indicators of attack, and the broad consequences. Then attack success scenarios with more detail are added to the attack profile, including alternate outcomes, describing a best, worst, and most likely case that could result from each type of attack on this particular business functional area. Potential Damage Assessment From the attack success scenarios developed above, the BIA planning team must estimate the cost of the best, worst, and most likely cases. These costs include the actions of the response team(s) described in subsequent sections as they act to quickly and effectively recover from any incident or disaster, and can also management representatives from all of the organization’s communities of interest of the importance of the planning and recovery efforts. This final result is referred to as an attack scenario end case. Subordinate Plan Classification Once the potential damage has been assessed, and each end case has been evaluated, a subordinate plan must be developed or identified from among existing plans already in place. These subordinate plans will take into account the identification of, reaction to, and recovery from each attack scenario. An attack scenario end case is categorized as disastrous or not. The qualifying difference is whether or not an organization is able to take effective action during the event to combat the effect of the attack.

25 Incident Response Planning
Activities to be performed when an incident has been identified What is an incident? If action threatens information & completed Characteristics Directed against information assets Realistic change of success Threaten the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of info

26 Incident Response Set of activities taken to plan for, detect, and correct the impact Incident planning Requires understanding BIA scenarios Develop series of predefined responses Enables org to react quickly

27 Incident Response Incident detection
Mechanisms – intrusion detection systems, virus detection, system administrators, end users

28 Incident Detection Possible indicators Presence of unfamiliar files
Execution of unknown programs or processes Unusual consumption of computing resources Unusual system crashes

29 Incident Detection Probable indicators Activities at unexpected times
Presence of new accounts Reported attacks Notification form IDS

30 Incident Detection Definite indicators Use of dormant accounts
Changes to logs Presence of hacker tools Notification by partner or peer Notification by hackers

31 Incident Detection Predefined Situation Loss of availability
Loss of integrity Loss of confidentiality Violation of policy Violation of law

32 Incident Reaction Actions outlined in the IRP Guide the organization
Stop the incident Mitigate the impact Provide information recovery Notify key personnel Document incident

33 Incident Containment Strategies
Sever affected communication circuits Disable accounts Reconfigure firewall Disable process or service Take down Stop all computers and network devices Isolate affected channels, processes, services, or computers

34 Incident Recovery Get everyone moving and focused Assess Damage
Identify and resolve vulnerabilities Address safeguards Evaluate monitoring capabilities Restore data from backups Restore process and services Continuously monitor system Restore confidence

35 Disaster Recovery Plan
Provide guidance in the event of a disaster Clear establishment of priorities Clear delegation of roles & responsibilities Alert key personnel Document disaster Mitigate impact Evacuation of physical assets

36 Crisis Management Disaster recovery personnel must know their responses without any supporting documentation Focus first & foremost -people involved Team responsibilities Support personnel and loved ones Determine impact on normal operations Keep public informed Communicate with major players

37 Business Continuity Planning
Prepares an organization to reestablish critical operations Temporary facilities Continuity strategy Integration of off-side data storage & recovery functions Off-site backup Identification of critical business functions Identification of critical resources

38 Alternative Site Configurations
Hot sites Fully configured computer facilities All services & communication links Physical plant operations Warm sites Does not include actual applications Application may not be installed and configured Required hours to days to become operational

39 Alternative Site Configurations
Cold sites Rudimentary services and facilities No hardware or peripherals empty room

40 Alternative Site Configurations
Time-shares Hot, warm, or cold Leased with other orgs Service bureau Provides service for a fee Mutual agreements Rolling mobile site

41 Off-Site Disaster Data Storage
“off-site” – how far? Electronic vaulting Transfer of large batches of data Receiving server archives data Fee Journaling Transfer of live transactions to off-site Only transactions are transferred Transfer is real time

42 Off-Site Disaster Data Storage
Shadowing Duplicated databases Multiple servers Processes duplicated 3 or more copies simultaneously

43 ACL Policies Restrict access from anyone & anywhere
Can regulate specific user, computer, time, duration, file

44 ACL Policies What regulated Who can use the system
What authorization users can access When authorization users can access Where authorization users can access

45 ACL Policies Authorization determined by persons identity
Can regulated specific computer equipment Regulate access to data Read Write Modify Copy Compare

46 Rule Policies More specific operation of a system than ACL
May or may not deal with user directly Define configuration of firewalls, IDS, and proxy servers

47 Policy Management Living documents Must be managed
Constantly changed and grow Must be properly disseminated Must be properly managed Responsible individual Policy administrator Champion & manager Not necessarily a technically oriented person

48 Reviews Schedule Procedures and practices
Retain effectiveness in changing environment Periodically reviewed Should be defined and published Should be reviewed at least annually Procedures and practices Recommendations for change Reality one person drafts

49 Document Configuration Management
Include date of original Includes date of revision Include expiration date

50 Information Classification
Control for the protection of information Important facet of policy Least “for internal use only” Clean desk policy

51 Information Security Blueprint
Risk Assessment Quantitative and qualitative analysis Feasibility studies Cost benefit analysis Good idea of systems vulnerabilities Specify tasks to be accomplished Specify order of performing tasks Serve as plan for IS security needs for years not just today

52 Information Security Blueprint
Basis for design, selection & implementation All security policies Education Training program Technology controls

53 Security Models ISO (International Organization for Standards)
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)

54 Security Models ISO/IEC 17799
Purpose – “give recommendations for information security management for use by those who are responsible for initiating, implementing, or maintaining security in their organization. Provides a common basis Must pay for these

55 Security Modes NIST Available from Computer Security Resource Center of National Institute for Standards & Technology Publically available at no charge Several publications dealing with various aspects

56 Security Models IETF VISA Internal Base lining and Best Practices
Internet Engineering Task Force VISA Internal Focus on system that can and do integrate with VISA Base lining and Best Practices Comparison of your organization security with another

57 Hybrid Framework People must become a layer of security Human firewall
Information security implementation Policies People Education, training, and awareness Technology

58 Figure 5-15 – Spheres of Security
Figure 6-16, showing the sphere of security, is the foundation of the security framework. Generally speaking, the sphere of security represents the fact that information is under attack from a variety of sources. The sphere of use, at the left of the figure, illustrates the ways in which people can directly access information: for example, people read hard copies of documents; they also access information through systems, such as the electronic storage of information. Information, as the most important asset to security, is illustrated at the core of the sphere. Information is always at risk from attacks through the people and computer systems that have direct access to the information. Networks and the Internet represent indirect threats, as exemplified by the fact that a person attempting to access information from the Internet must first go through the local networks and then access systems that contain the information. The sphere of protection, at the right of the figure, illustrates that between each layer of the sphere of use there must exist a layer of protection to prevent access to the inner layer from the outer layer. Each shaded band is a layer of protection and control. For example, the layer labeled “policy education and training” is located between people and the information. Controls are also implemented between systems and the information, between networks and the computer systems, and between the Internet and internal networks. This reinforces the concept of defense in depth. As illustrated in the sphere of protection portion of Figure 6-16, a variety of controls can be used to protect the information. The list in the figure is not intended to be comprehensive but illustrates individual safeguards that protect the various systems that are located closer to the center of the sphere. However, as people can directly access each ring as well as the information at the core of the model, people require unique approaches to security. In fact, the resource of people must become a layer of security, a human firewall that protects the information from unauthorized access and use. The members of the organization must become a safeguard, which is effectively trained, implemented, and maintained, or else they, too, become a threat to the information. Principles of Information Security, 2nd Edition

59 Hybrid Framework Managerial Controls Cover security process
Implemented by security administrator Set directions and scope Addresses the design and implementation Addresses risk management & security control reviews Necessity and scope of legal compliance

60 Hybrid Framework Operational Controls
Operational functionality of security Disaster recovery Incident response planning Personnel and physical security Protection of production inputs and outputs

61 Hybrid Framework Operational Controls
Development of education, training & awareness Addresses hardware and software system maintenance Integrity of data

62 Hybrid Framework Technical Controls
Addresses the tactical & technical issues Addresses specifics of technology selection & acquisition Addresses identification Addresses authentication Addresses authorization Addresses accountability

63 Hybrid Framework Technical Controls
Addresses development & implementation of audits Covers cryptography Classification of assets and users

64 Hybrid Framework Security Architecture Components Defenses in Depth
One of basic tenants Implementation of security in layers Policy Training Technology Security Perimeter Defines the edge between the outer limit of an organization’s security and the beginning of the outside world

65 Hybrid Framework Security Architecture Components
First level of security – protects all internal systems from outside threats Multiple technologies segregate the protected information Security domains or areas of trust

66 Key Technology Components
SETA Security education, training and awareness Employee errors among top threats Purpose Improve awareness of need to protect Develop skills and knowledge Build in-depth knowledge to design, implement, or operate security programs

67 Comparative Framework of SETA
Education Training Awareness Attribute Why How What Level Insight Knowledge Information Objective Understanding Skill Exposure Teaching method Theoretical instruction Discussion seminar Background reading Hands-on practice Practical instruction Lecture Case study Posters Media Videos Newsletters Test measure Essay (interpret learning) Problem solving (apply learning) True or false Multiple choice (identify learning) Impact timeframe Long-term Intermediate Short-term

68 Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
Investigate & assess impact of various attack First risk assessment – then BIA Prioritized list of threats & critical info Detailed scenarios of potential impact of each attack Answers question “if the attack succeeds, what do you do then?”

69 BIA Sections Threat attack identification & prioritization
Attack profile – detailed description of activities that occur during an attack Determine the extent of resulting damage Business Unit analysis Analysis & prioritization-business functions Identify & prioritize functions w/in orgs units

70 BIA Sections Attack success scenario development
Series of scenarios showing impact Each treat on prioritized list Alternate outcomes Best, worst, probable cases Potential damage assessment Estimate cost of best, worst, probable What must be done under each Not how much to spend Subordinate Plan Classification Basis for classification as disastrous not disastrous

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