Presentation on theme: "Upgrading Authoritarianism in the Arab world. Steven Heydemann By Linda."— Presentation transcript:
Upgrading Authoritarianism in the Arab world. Steven Heydemann By Linda
Steven Heydemann. Steven Heydemann is a political scientist whose research focuses on democratization and economic reform in the Middle East, and on the relationship between institutions and economic development more broadly.
Outline: o Introduction. o ”Upgrading authoritarianism”. The five key features. o Promotion of democracy in the Middle East. o Ex: Authoritarian upgrading in Syria. o Conclusion.
Introduction. ”(…)authoritarian upgrading involves reconfiguring authoritarian governance to accommodate and manage changing political, economic, and social conditions.” s.145.
The five key features. 1.Appropriating and containing civil societies. 2.Managing political contestation. 3.Capturing the benefits of selective economic reforms. 4.Controlling new communications technologies. 5.Diversifying international linkages.
”Upgrading authoriatanism” Exploitation of social, political and economic settings. Making elections safe for authoritaianism. Selective processes of economic liberalization. Strategies to control and manage acces to communication technologies. Top-down approach to economic liberalization without political reform.
Promotion of democracy in the Middle East. ”Authoritarian regimes has been forced to adjust an reconfigure themselves in response to pressures for democratic reform.” ”Strengthening the democratic and oppositional potential of Arab states have reached their limits.”
Authoritarian upgrading in Syria. Strict control over civil institutions. When Bashar al-Asad succeded precedency in Syria, 2000 he received 98 percent of the votes in 2007 he received 97,6 percent of the national referendum. The ba´ath partys control over markets. Privitazation etc. (Rami Makhlouf owner of Syriatel and first cousin of Bashar al-Asad). China and Singapore as investors in Syria.
Conclusion. (…) Arab regimes have concluded that the most effective strategy for resolving the economic, political, and social problems that threaten their stability is not democratization, but the upgrading of authoritarian strageies of governane,(…) s. 170.