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NSS Enriching Knowledge Lecture Series: International cooperation and regional politics since 1945 (3): Globalisation of Food: Politics, Economy and Society.

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Presentation on theme: "NSS Enriching Knowledge Lecture Series: International cooperation and regional politics since 1945 (3): Globalisation of Food: Politics, Economy and Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 NSS Enriching Knowledge Lecture Series: International cooperation and regional politics since 1945 (3): Globalisation of Food: Politics, Economy and Society (New) Dr. KWONG Chi-man Hong Kong Baptist University CDI020121547 1.12.2012

2  Food: Simple Matter of Demand and Supply?  Globalisation of Food, 1492-1939  Food and the World Wars  Globalisation of Food after 1945:  Economy  Politics  Society CONTENTS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 2

3 3 I: FOOD: SIMPLE MATTER OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY?

4  Age of Plenty  Food for a farm labourer, Britain, 1796 Food for a farm labourer, Britain, 1796  The meals of a mill worker, Britain, 1876 The meals of a mill worker, Britain, 1876  A blogger’s meal, Hong Kong, 2012 A blogger’s meal, Hong Kong, 2012  Famine Cases After 1945 Famine Cases After 1945 FOOD: SIMPLE MATTER OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY? Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 4

5  Food: solely economic issue?  Human rights issue?  “The Freedom from Want” – Four Freedoms of Franklin Roosevelt, US President, 1941  Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948  Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food…(Article 25). FOOD: SIMPLE MATTER OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY? Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 5

6  International dimension  Global movement of food and ideas  International trade  Politics and International relations  Social dimension  Class  Eating habit as expression of class identity  Ethnicity and Identity  National identity and national cuisine  Regional culture  Culture  Globalisation  Glocalisation FOOD: SIMPLE MATTER OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY? Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 6

7 7 II: GLOBALISATION OF FOOD, 1493-1939

8  Age of Discovery, 1493-1850  Trade and Colonialism  Movement of food from the Americas to Eurasia  Sugarcane, spice, fruits…  Potato and Maize  Population increase Population increase GLOBALISATION OF FOOD, 1493-1939 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 8

9  The Mid-Nineteenth Century to WWI  Increase in productivity  Staple food – wheat, barley, rice… Staple food – wheat, barley, rice  Meat – (16kg per person/year in 1870 – 50+kg per person/year in 1914) Meat  Industrialisation  Dehydration  Pasteurisation  Refrigeration  Canning Canning  Transportation  Railway and steamshipssteamships  Emergence of large corporations and lobby groups  E.g. United Fruit Company, 1899-1970 and Meat UnionUnited Fruit Company, 1899-1970  Marketing and consumerism Marketing and consumerism GLOBALISATION OF FOOD, 1493-1939 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 9

10  The Mid-Nineteenth Century to WWI (con’t)  International trade – Free Trade  Free trade and division of labour  Banana republics (monoculture)  South America and Australia  Migration and changing diet GLOBALISATION OF FOOD, 1493-1939 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 10

11  Sell goods and buy food/ Grow food and buy goods? - Autarchy or Globalisation?  German example (1870-1914):  Contexts: German farmers vs. major exporters of grain (USA, Russia and Canada); population increase; industrialisation; urbanisation; decrease of agricultural pop; political structure of Germany  Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck introduced import tariff of grain to protect farmers and land owning class (Junkers) – high price for imported food  Attempt to dismantle tariff battier failed - conservative opposition  Vicious cycle: increasingly difficult to feed working population with home-grown food – increased reliance on import – unwilling to break tariff barrier home-grown food Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 11 GLOBALISATION OF FOOD, 1493-1939

12 12 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society III: FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS

13  Germany  Context: Unable to sustain itself during the First World War under British blockade – “Turnip Winter”: near-famine in 1917; 750,000 died of malnutrition FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 13 http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/comment/warbook/images/wb11.jpg http://chestofbooks.com/gardening-horticulture/Commercial-Gardening- 4/images/TURNIPS-FOR-STREET-SALE-Turnips-badly-Infested-with-maggots.jpg Please use the following links to view two pictures.

14  Germany (con’t)  Autarchy vs Free trade? Debate in the 1920s  Argument of Autarchy won  Supported by right-wing movements  The Nazis and Food  Reich Food Corporation – total state control since 1933  “Blood and soil”: Race, agriculture, and LebensraumBlood and soil  Understood the inability to feed the Germans during wartime – attack the Soviet Union!  Generalplan Ost, 1940 Generalplan Ost Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 14 FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS

15  Japan  Context: Rapid modernisation after 1868  Changing eating habits  More animal protein  Increase in rice consumption  25% increase from 1890s to 1914  Reliance on colonial supply: Korea and Taiwan  Still not enough!  Manchuria – “Plan for the Settlement of One Million Households over Twenty Years”  China and Southeast Asia  Italy  Battle for Grain 1920s FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 15

16  Allies attempt to coordinate food  Combined Food Board (Anglo-American Cooperation)  Attempts to increase production – idea of nutrition science Attempts to increase production – idea of nutrition science  Still, famine in India  Meals of the Soldiers, WWII  Axis Axis  Allies Allies Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 16 FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS

17 17 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society IV: GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: ECONOMY

18  Post 1945 socio-economic development  Relative peace  Population increase Population increase  Industrialisation and urbanisation  Increase in wealth  Change in lifestyle Change in lifestyle  Multinationals Multinationals GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: ECONOMY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 18

19  Technological change  Agri-chemistry  Hybrids  Packaging  Refrigerating  Transport  Example: factory shipsfactory ships GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: ECONOMY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 19

20  The Problem of Distribution  Uneven distribution Uneven distribution  Obesity in developed countries  Famines around the world  Causes  Natural disaster  Internal and international politics  International trade GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: ECONOMY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 20

21 21 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society V: GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS

22  World food situation in 1945  Overall amount of food available to the world: 12% less than before the war – and a drought broke out in 1946  Many had less than half of what they had in 1945 than in 1939  Europe  Production was only 36% of prewar level  Germany: 1,000 calories per person per day in cities  Some Germans lost a pound a day in 1946  2 million died in the Soviet Union  Even Britain had to introduce rationing in 1945  Asia  Famine in China, Korea, Java, and Vietnam  30 million in China suffered from under-nourishment  100,000 starved to death in Tokyo three months after the war  The Americas GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 22

23  Food as Cold War Weapon  Berlin Airlift, 1948  Marshall Plan VS Warsaw Pact  Relief package (CARE) from the USA Relief package (CARE) from the USA  Politics of Aid  Abundance as propaganda: Hong Kong Abundance as propaganda: Hong Kong  Chinese food and water: Hong Kong  East Pearl River Water  Ng Fung Hong  Food trains during the 1967 Riot GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 23

24  International Cooperation Attempts (By UN)  The International Institute of Agriculture, 1905-1945  Combined Food Board during the Second World War  United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture, 1943 (Hot Spring Conference)  Not only about food aid  Also put forward the idea of eating healthily  Food and Agriculture Organisation, 1945-  World Food Programme, 1961  World Food Conference, 1974  World Food Council, 1974-1993  World Summit on Food Security, 1996, 2002, 2009 GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 24

25  International Cooperation Attempts (By Others)  World Trade organization, 1993  Global Food Security Program (World Bank), 2010  European Union  European Food Safety Authority GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 25

26  Work Done  Food aid  Setting standards  Food safety  Market regulation  Removal of trade barrier  Sharing technology  Joint research  Dissemination GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 26

27  Limitations of Cooperation  Processes of reaching international agreements  Tensions  Politics within the international organisations  States vs. States States vs. States  States vs. Corporations and interest groups States vs. Corporations and interest groups  Politics within the states  States vs. individuals  Corporations vs. individuals GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 27

28  Limitations of Cooperation (con’t)  Other Causes  Political  Internal situation in countries  Multinational and agricultural interests  Lack of consensus among countries  Politics of food aid  Technological and Economic  Trade and food aid  Bottleneck in production  Speculation and trade barrier  Oil price and food fuel  New technology vs. vested interest GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 28

29 29 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society VI: GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: SOCIETY

30  Prices of Increased Productivity  Environmental Environmental  Wastage  Impact of agriculture on environment  Carbon footprint of food  Loss of biodiversity  Obesity  Over-consumption Over-consumption  Health cost Health cost  Entrenched interest  American Meat Institute, National Meat Association, American Association of Meat Processors  Twisting of taste  Standardisation of flavour  Artificial flavour GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: SOCIETY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 30

31  Cultural and Class Dimensions  National cuisine and regional food?  Class dimension of food?  Conservation VS tradition  Whale hunting in Japan: a means to get protein quickly after the Second World War  Now seen as a traditional institutional that should not be abandoned  Employment  Vested interest GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: SOCIETY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 31

32 32 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society THE END!

33  Bread  Little bit of bacon  Sometimes with potatoes  A bit cheese  Beer, sugared tea, and “tiny quantities of milk” Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 33 FOOD FOR A FARM LABOURER, 1796

34  Monday: a bit of cold meat  Tuesday: a hash (mix of diced meat, potatoes, and spices)  Wednesday: a potato pie  Thursday: fry liver and onions  Friday: potted meat  Saturday: sausage  With potatoes, bread, and beverages such as tea, beer, and milk Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 34 THE MEALS OF A MILL WORKER, 1876

35 (Not a wedding dinner!)  Roasted pig  Fried crab leg  Stir-fried shrimp  Dried scallop  Sharks fin soup  Abalone with goose palm  Steamed garoupa  Crispy chicken  Shanghai dumplings  Braised noodles Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 35 A BLOGGER’S MEAL, 2012

36 1945Vietnam2,000,000 1947Soviet Union1,000,000-1,500,000 1958Tigray, Ethiopia100,000 1959–1961China15,000,000–43,000,000 1968–1972 Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger and Burkina Faso 1,000,000 1972–1973Ethiopia60,000 1974Bangladesh1,000,000 1975–1979Cambodia2,000,000 1980–1981Uganda30,000 1983–1985Ethiopia200,000 1991–1992Somalia300,000 1996North Korea200,000-3,500,000 1998Sudan70,000 FAMINE CASES AFTER 1945 YearLocationDeaths Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 36

37 Nathan Nunn; Nancy Qian, (2011). “The Potato's Contribution to Population and Urbanization: Evidence from a Historical Experiment”. Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 (2): 600. Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 37 POTATOES AND POPULATION GROWTH

38 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 38 POTATOES AND POPULATION GROWTH Nathan Nunn; Nancy Qian, (2011). “The Potato's Contribution to Population and Urbanization: Evidence from a Historical Experiment”. Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 (2): 594.

39 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 39 INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY Alexander Apostolides, “English Agricultural Output And Labour Productivity, 1250–1850: Some Preliminary Estimates”. http://www.basvanleeuwen.net/bestanden/agriclongrun1250to1850.pdf

40 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 40 INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY K. T. H. Farrer, A Settlement Amply Supplied, p. 250; http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/aghistory/livestock/beef/markets_and_marketing/marketing_-_produce Export of Frozen Meat 1881-1900 (tons)

41 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 41 US MEAT INDUSTRY, 1900s http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_FrsZ4UW5Hs/TPVfKiPSLtI/AAAAAAAAArY/o DS_yXTQkYE/s1600/beef5.jpg http://www.brandeis.edu/investigate/foodborne- illness/images/Beef-industry-1900s-4.jpg Please use the following links to view two pictures about the Industrialized Butcher House in the USA in the 1900s.

42 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 42 CANNED FOOD, 1890s http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8031/7986212820_c0be7643c6_m.jpg Please use this link to view the picture of the Cooked Corn Beef, USA, 1890s

43 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 43 MARKETING AND COMMERCIALS http://www.britishempire.co.uk/images/crac kerspack.jpg http://www.britishempire.co.uk/images/pate rsonspack.jpg Please use the following two links to view two posters.

44 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 44 BANANA CARRIERS http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a6/SS_Abangarez.jpg Please use this link to view the picture of SS Abangarez, 5,000t cargo ship built for the United Fruit Company in 1911

45 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 45 GERMAN GENERALPLAN OST, 1940 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/Generalplan_Ost_ map.tiff/lossy-page1-1024px-Generalplan_Ost_map.tiff.jpg Please use this link to view the map.

46 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 46 WAR DEATHS, 1945-2000 http://www.worldmapper.org/images/largepng/287.png Please use this link to view the map which shows the war deaths From 1945 to 2000.

47 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 47 INTERNATIONAL FAST FOOD DIST. http://www.worldmapper.org/images/largepng/364.png Please use this link to view the map which shows the international Fast food distribution.

48 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 48 FOOD MULTINATIONALS http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/27/consumer-brands-owned-ten-companies- graphic_n_1458812.html Please use this link to view the companies which have enormous number of consumer brands in the market.

49 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 49 PER CAPITA FOOD CONSUMPTION (KCAL/PERSON/DAY) FAO, World Agriculture: towards 2015/2030, p.30

50 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 50 OBESITY AND HEALTH PROBLEM http://www.oecd.org/els/healthpoliciesanddata/thirdlancet seriesonchronicdiseaseschina-keyfacts.htm Please use this link to view the charts showing the overweight rates in analyzed countries and OECD (adults) in 2010.

51 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 51 WHITE LOAF VS RYE BREAD

52 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 52 RACE, LAND, AGRICULTURE http://file.vintageadbrowser.com/l- vaayf2et6kmhxm.jpg Please use this link to view the Nazi Poster in 1937.

53  (Enhancement of the) economic, social and political conditions in Hong Kong that will continue to contrast favorably with conditions in Communist China – “Statement of US Policy on Hong Kong,” NSC6007, 1960  US food aid to Hong Kong (P.L.480) – all American outputs  4 million USD (30,400,000USD in 2011) per annum between 1958- 1961  1 million under refugee program  0.8 million under information program  0.027 million under educational exchange Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 53 HONG KONG AS COLD WAR FRONT: FOOD

54 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 54 A CARE RELIEF PACKAGE Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere http://blob.freent.de/contentblob/739398/teaserImg847x565/carepaket e-luftbruecke.jpg Please use this link to view the picture of a care relief package.

55  US Department of Agriculture vs US Military and UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)  Dept. of Agriculture wanted to reduce production to protect the US farming interest from overproduction  Food administrators encouraged the production and consumption of meat – instead of producing enough grain for the starving European population  USA unable to provide enough grain for the starving European countries in 1946 – had to be helped by countries such as Britain and Canada Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 55 “BARE SHELF” POLICY OF 1944

56  Put forward by John Boyd Orr, British nutritionist, who was elected as the director-general of the FAO in 1946  To “reconfigure the world’s political economy by organizing it scientifically, according to human need, not profit”  The idea of continuing the Food Board during the Second World War to coordinate production and distribution of food  Opposed by the US State Department Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 56 IDEA OF WORLD FOOD BOARD

57 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 57 CHANGING JAPANESE DIET, 1961-2006 “Resource consumption in Japanese agriculture and its link to food security,” Energy Policy, Vol. 39, No. 3, (Mar 2011)

58 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 58 JAPANESE MILITARY RATION http://www.lonesentry.com/articles/japanese- rations/japanese-military-rations.jpg http://www.lonesentry.com/articles/japanese- rations/japanese-combat-rations.jpg http://www.lonesentry.com/articles/japanese- rations/japanese-army-rations.jpg Please use these links to view the pictures showing the Japanese Military Ration

59 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 59 AMERICAN MILITARY RATION http://www.usarmymodels.com/ARTICLES/Ration s/KRatSupper.jpg Please use this link to view the picture of K-Ration (Survival-ration) for field use

60 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 60 MEALS AT THE HOME FRONT… http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/u010000/u01 1869.jpg http://pic50.picturetrail.com/VOL437/658868/10754765/ 367572848.jpg Please use these links to view the pictures of meals at the home front.

61 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 61 ALLIES FOOD EFFORT http://bhgsltd.co.uk/var/plain_site/storage/images/home/ gallery/wartime_posters/dig_for_victory_now/1570-1- eng-GB/dig_for_victory_now_large.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_LL7ZWpU1aRQ/S9yALZDws cI/AAAAAAAAABI/HYzd5WrpL0s/s1600/Food+is+a+W eapon.gif http://www.stanfordfestival.com/drcp oster.jpg Please use these links to view the pictures showing the Allies food effort.

62 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 62 C/P ALASKA OCEAN http://amhistory.si.edu/onthewater/assets/object/full/2009-2229.jpg Please use these links to view the pictures of the C/P Alaska Ocean(7,419t) – catcher and processor of fish – nearly 40% of commercial caught fish in the USA


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