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NSS Enriching Knowledge Lecture Series: International cooperation and regional politics since 1945 (3): Globalisation of Food: Politics, Economy and Society.

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Presentation on theme: "NSS Enriching Knowledge Lecture Series: International cooperation and regional politics since 1945 (3): Globalisation of Food: Politics, Economy and Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 NSS Enriching Knowledge Lecture Series: International cooperation and regional politics since 1945 (3): Globalisation of Food: Politics, Economy and Society (New) Dr. KWONG Chi-man Hong Kong Baptist University CDI

2  Food: Simple Matter of Demand and Supply?  Globalisation of Food,  Food and the World Wars  Globalisation of Food after 1945:  Economy  Politics  Society CONTENTS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 2

3 3 I: FOOD: SIMPLE MATTER OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY?

4  Age of Plenty  Food for a farm labourer, Britain, 1796 Food for a farm labourer, Britain, 1796  The meals of a mill worker, Britain, 1876 The meals of a mill worker, Britain, 1876  A blogger’s meal, Hong Kong, 2012 A blogger’s meal, Hong Kong, 2012  Famine Cases After 1945 Famine Cases After 1945 FOOD: SIMPLE MATTER OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY? Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 4

5  Food: solely economic issue?  Human rights issue?  “The Freedom from Want” – Four Freedoms of Franklin Roosevelt, US President, 1941  Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948  Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food…(Article 25). FOOD: SIMPLE MATTER OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY? Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 5

6  International dimension  Global movement of food and ideas  International trade  Politics and International relations  Social dimension  Class  Eating habit as expression of class identity  Ethnicity and Identity  National identity and national cuisine  Regional culture  Culture  Globalisation  Glocalisation FOOD: SIMPLE MATTER OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY? Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 6

7 7 II: GLOBALISATION OF FOOD,

8  Age of Discovery,  Trade and Colonialism  Movement of food from the Americas to Eurasia  Sugarcane, spice, fruits…  Potato and Maize  Population increase Population increase GLOBALISATION OF FOOD, Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 8

9  The Mid-Nineteenth Century to WWI  Increase in productivity  Staple food – wheat, barley, rice… Staple food – wheat, barley, rice  Meat – (16kg per person/year in 1870 – 50+kg per person/year in 1914) Meat  Industrialisation  Dehydration  Pasteurisation  Refrigeration  Canning Canning  Transportation  Railway and steamshipssteamships  Emergence of large corporations and lobby groups  E.g. United Fruit Company, and Meat UnionUnited Fruit Company,  Marketing and consumerism Marketing and consumerism GLOBALISATION OF FOOD, Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 9

10  The Mid-Nineteenth Century to WWI (con’t)  International trade – Free Trade  Free trade and division of labour  Banana republics (monoculture)  South America and Australia  Migration and changing diet GLOBALISATION OF FOOD, Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 10

11  Sell goods and buy food/ Grow food and buy goods? - Autarchy or Globalisation?  German example ( ):  Contexts: German farmers vs. major exporters of grain (USA, Russia and Canada); population increase; industrialisation; urbanisation; decrease of agricultural pop; political structure of Germany  Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck introduced import tariff of grain to protect farmers and land owning class (Junkers) – high price for imported food  Attempt to dismantle tariff battier failed - conservative opposition  Vicious cycle: increasingly difficult to feed working population with home-grown food – increased reliance on import – unwilling to break tariff barrier home-grown food Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 11 GLOBALISATION OF FOOD,

12 12 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society III: FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS

13  Germany  Context: Unable to sustain itself during the First World War under British blockade – “Turnip Winter”: near-famine in 1917; 750,000 died of malnutrition FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society /images/TURNIPS-FOR-STREET-SALE-Turnips-badly-Infested-with-maggots.jpg Please use the following links to view two pictures.

14  Germany (con’t)  Autarchy vs Free trade? Debate in the 1920s  Argument of Autarchy won  Supported by right-wing movements  The Nazis and Food  Reich Food Corporation – total state control since 1933  “Blood and soil”: Race, agriculture, and LebensraumBlood and soil  Understood the inability to feed the Germans during wartime – attack the Soviet Union!  Generalplan Ost, 1940 Generalplan Ost Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 14 FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS

15  Japan  Context: Rapid modernisation after 1868  Changing eating habits  More animal protein  Increase in rice consumption  25% increase from 1890s to 1914  Reliance on colonial supply: Korea and Taiwan  Still not enough!  Manchuria – “Plan for the Settlement of One Million Households over Twenty Years”  China and Southeast Asia  Italy  Battle for Grain 1920s FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 15

16  Allies attempt to coordinate food  Combined Food Board (Anglo-American Cooperation)  Attempts to increase production – idea of nutrition science Attempts to increase production – idea of nutrition science  Still, famine in India  Meals of the Soldiers, WWII  Axis Axis  Allies Allies Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 16 FOOD AND THE WORLD WARS

17 17 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society IV: GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: ECONOMY

18  Post 1945 socio-economic development  Relative peace  Population increase Population increase  Industrialisation and urbanisation  Increase in wealth  Change in lifestyle Change in lifestyle  Multinationals Multinationals GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: ECONOMY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 18

19  Technological change  Agri-chemistry  Hybrids  Packaging  Refrigerating  Transport  Example: factory shipsfactory ships GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: ECONOMY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 19

20  The Problem of Distribution  Uneven distribution Uneven distribution  Obesity in developed countries  Famines around the world  Causes  Natural disaster  Internal and international politics  International trade GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: ECONOMY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 20

21 21 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society V: GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS

22  World food situation in 1945  Overall amount of food available to the world: 12% less than before the war – and a drought broke out in 1946  Many had less than half of what they had in 1945 than in 1939  Europe  Production was only 36% of prewar level  Germany: 1,000 calories per person per day in cities  Some Germans lost a pound a day in 1946  2 million died in the Soviet Union  Even Britain had to introduce rationing in 1945  Asia  Famine in China, Korea, Java, and Vietnam  30 million in China suffered from under-nourishment  100,000 starved to death in Tokyo three months after the war  The Americas GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 22

23  Food as Cold War Weapon  Berlin Airlift, 1948  Marshall Plan VS Warsaw Pact  Relief package (CARE) from the USA Relief package (CARE) from the USA  Politics of Aid  Abundance as propaganda: Hong Kong Abundance as propaganda: Hong Kong  Chinese food and water: Hong Kong  East Pearl River Water  Ng Fung Hong  Food trains during the 1967 Riot GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 23

24  International Cooperation Attempts (By UN)  The International Institute of Agriculture,  Combined Food Board during the Second World War  United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture, 1943 (Hot Spring Conference)  Not only about food aid  Also put forward the idea of eating healthily  Food and Agriculture Organisation,  World Food Programme, 1961  World Food Conference, 1974  World Food Council,  World Summit on Food Security, 1996, 2002, 2009 GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 24

25  International Cooperation Attempts (By Others)  World Trade organization, 1993  Global Food Security Program (World Bank), 2010  European Union  European Food Safety Authority GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 25

26  Work Done  Food aid  Setting standards  Food safety  Market regulation  Removal of trade barrier  Sharing technology  Joint research  Dissemination GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 26

27  Limitations of Cooperation  Processes of reaching international agreements  Tensions  Politics within the international organisations  States vs. States States vs. States  States vs. Corporations and interest groups States vs. Corporations and interest groups  Politics within the states  States vs. individuals  Corporations vs. individuals GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 27

28  Limitations of Cooperation (con’t)  Other Causes  Political  Internal situation in countries  Multinational and agricultural interests  Lack of consensus among countries  Politics of food aid  Technological and Economic  Trade and food aid  Bottleneck in production  Speculation and trade barrier  Oil price and food fuel  New technology vs. vested interest GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: POLITICS Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 28

29 29 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society VI: GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: SOCIETY

30  Prices of Increased Productivity  Environmental Environmental  Wastage  Impact of agriculture on environment  Carbon footprint of food  Loss of biodiversity  Obesity  Over-consumption Over-consumption  Health cost Health cost  Entrenched interest  American Meat Institute, National Meat Association, American Association of Meat Processors  Twisting of taste  Standardisation of flavour  Artificial flavour GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: SOCIETY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 30

31  Cultural and Class Dimensions  National cuisine and regional food?  Class dimension of food?  Conservation VS tradition  Whale hunting in Japan: a means to get protein quickly after the Second World War  Now seen as a traditional institutional that should not be abandoned  Employment  Vested interest GLOBALISATION OF FOOD AFTER 1945: SOCIETY Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 31

32 32 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society THE END!

33  Bread  Little bit of bacon  Sometimes with potatoes  A bit cheese  Beer, sugared tea, and “tiny quantities of milk” Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 33 FOOD FOR A FARM LABOURER, 1796

34  Monday: a bit of cold meat  Tuesday: a hash (mix of diced meat, potatoes, and spices)  Wednesday: a potato pie  Thursday: fry liver and onions  Friday: potted meat  Saturday: sausage  With potatoes, bread, and beverages such as tea, beer, and milk Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 34 THE MEALS OF A MILL WORKER, 1876

35 (Not a wedding dinner!)  Roasted pig  Fried crab leg  Stir-fried shrimp  Dried scallop  Sharks fin soup  Abalone with goose palm  Steamed garoupa  Crispy chicken  Shanghai dumplings  Braised noodles Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 35 A BLOGGER’S MEAL, 2012

36 1945Vietnam2,000, Soviet Union1,000,000-1,500, Tigray, Ethiopia100, –1961China15,000,000–43,000, –1972 Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger and Burkina Faso 1,000, –1973Ethiopia60, Bangladesh1,000, –1979Cambodia2,000, –1981Uganda30, –1985Ethiopia200, –1992Somalia300, North Korea200,000-3,500, Sudan70,000 FAMINE CASES AFTER 1945 YearLocationDeaths Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 36

37 Nathan Nunn; Nancy Qian, (2011). “The Potato's Contribution to Population and Urbanization: Evidence from a Historical Experiment”. Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 (2): 600. Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 37 POTATOES AND POPULATION GROWTH

38 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 38 POTATOES AND POPULATION GROWTH Nathan Nunn; Nancy Qian, (2011). “The Potato's Contribution to Population and Urbanization: Evidence from a Historical Experiment”. Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 (2): 594.

39 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 39 INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY Alexander Apostolides, “English Agricultural Output And Labour Productivity, 1250–1850: Some Preliminary Estimates”.

40 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 40 INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY K. T. H. Farrer, A Settlement Amply Supplied, p. 250; Export of Frozen Meat (tons)

41 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 41 US MEAT INDUSTRY, 1900s DS_yXTQkYE/s1600/beef5.jpg illness/images/Beef-industry-1900s-4.jpg Please use the following links to view two pictures about the Industrialized Butcher House in the USA in the 1900s.

42 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 42 CANNED FOOD, 1890s Please use this link to view the picture of the Cooked Corn Beef, USA, 1890s

43 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 43 MARKETING AND COMMERCIALS kerspack.jpg rsonspack.jpg Please use the following two links to view two posters.

44 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 44 BANANA CARRIERS Please use this link to view the picture of SS Abangarez, 5,000t cargo ship built for the United Fruit Company in 1911

45 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 45 GERMAN GENERALPLAN OST, map.tiff/lossy-page1-1024px-Generalplan_Ost_map.tiff.jpg Please use this link to view the map.

46 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 46 WAR DEATHS, Please use this link to view the map which shows the war deaths From 1945 to 2000.

47 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 47 INTERNATIONAL FAST FOOD DIST. Please use this link to view the map which shows the international Fast food distribution.

48 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 48 FOOD MULTINATIONALS graphic_n_ html Please use this link to view the companies which have enormous number of consumer brands in the market.

49 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 49 PER CAPITA FOOD CONSUMPTION (KCAL/PERSON/DAY) FAO, World Agriculture: towards 2015/2030, p.30

50 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 50 OBESITY AND HEALTH PROBLEM seriesonchronicdiseaseschina-keyfacts.htm Please use this link to view the charts showing the overweight rates in analyzed countries and OECD (adults) in 2010.

51 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 51 WHITE LOAF VS RYE BREAD

52 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 52 RACE, LAND, AGRICULTURE vaayf2et6kmhxm.jpg Please use this link to view the Nazi Poster in 1937.

53  (Enhancement of the) economic, social and political conditions in Hong Kong that will continue to contrast favorably with conditions in Communist China – “Statement of US Policy on Hong Kong,” NSC6007, 1960  US food aid to Hong Kong (P.L.480) – all American outputs  4 million USD (30,400,000USD in 2011) per annum between  1 million under refugee program  0.8 million under information program  million under educational exchange Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 53 HONG KONG AS COLD WAR FRONT: FOOD

54 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 54 A CARE RELIEF PACKAGE Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere e-luftbruecke.jpg Please use this link to view the picture of a care relief package.

55  US Department of Agriculture vs US Military and UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)  Dept. of Agriculture wanted to reduce production to protect the US farming interest from overproduction  Food administrators encouraged the production and consumption of meat – instead of producing enough grain for the starving European population  USA unable to provide enough grain for the starving European countries in 1946 – had to be helped by countries such as Britain and Canada Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 55 “BARE SHELF” POLICY OF 1944

56  Put forward by John Boyd Orr, British nutritionist, who was elected as the director-general of the FAO in 1946  To “reconfigure the world’s political economy by organizing it scientifically, according to human need, not profit”  The idea of continuing the Food Board during the Second World War to coordinate production and distribution of food  Opposed by the US State Department Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 56 IDEA OF WORLD FOOD BOARD

57 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 57 CHANGING JAPANESE DIET, “Resource consumption in Japanese agriculture and its link to food security,” Energy Policy, Vol. 39, No. 3, (Mar 2011)

58 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 58 JAPANESE MILITARY RATION rations/japanese-military-rations.jpg rations/japanese-combat-rations.jpg rations/japanese-army-rations.jpg Please use these links to view the pictures showing the Japanese Military Ration

59 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 59 AMERICAN MILITARY RATION s/KRatSupper.jpg Please use this link to view the picture of K-Ration (Survival-ration) for field use

60 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 60 MEALS AT THE HOME FRONT… jpg jpg Please use these links to view the pictures of meals at the home front.

61 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 61 ALLIES FOOD EFFORT gallery/wartime_posters/dig_for_victory_now/ eng-GB/dig_for_victory_now_large.jpg cI/AAAAAAAAABI/HYzd5WrpL0s/s1600/Food+is+a+W eapon.gif oster.jpg Please use these links to view the pictures showing the Allies food effort.

62 Globalisation of Food: Economy, Politics, and Society 62 C/P ALASKA OCEAN Please use these links to view the pictures of the C/P Alaska Ocean(7,419t) – catcher and processor of fish – nearly 40% of commercial caught fish in the USA


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