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CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #1 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration Servers.

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Presentation on theme: "CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #1 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration Servers."— Presentation transcript:

1 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #1 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration Servers

2 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #2 Topics 1.Servers vs Desktops 2.Server Hardware 3.Operating System 4.Different Approaches to Servers

3 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #3 How are Servers different? 1000s of clients depend on server. Requires high reliability. Requires tighter security. Often expected to last longer. Investment amortized over many clients, longer lifetime.

4 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #4 Vendor Product Lines Home –Cheapest purchase price. –Components change regularly based on cost. Business –Focuses on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). –Slower hardware changes, longer lifetime. Server –Lowest cost per performance metric (nfs, web) –Easy to service rack-mountable chassis. –Higher quality (MIL-SPEC) components.

5 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #5 Server Hardware More internal space. More CPU/Memory. –More / high-end CPUs. –More / faster memory. High performance I/O. –PCIe vs PCI –SCSI/FC-AL vs. IDE Rack mounted. Redundancy –RAID –Hot-swap, hot-spares

6 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #6 Rack Mounting Efficient space utilization.  Simple, rectangular shape measured in RUs.  Repair and upgrade while mounted in rack.  No side access required. Requirements  Cooling through back, not sides.  Drives in front, cables in back.  Remote management (serial console, hardware sensors, VM MUI)

7 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #7 Server Memory Servers need more RAM than desktops. –x86 supports up to 64GB with PAE. –x86-64 supports 1 PB (1024 TB) Servers need faster RAM than desktops. –Higher memory speeds. –Multiple DIMMs accessed in parallel. –Larger CPU caches.

8 Server CPUs CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #8 Intel Xeon Up to 8 cores with 2 threads 1.8 to 3.3 GHz Up to 18 MB L3 cache AMD Opteron 4, 6, 8, or to 3.2 GHz Up to 12 MB L3 cache IBM Power 7 4, 6, or 8 cores with 4 threads 3.0 to 4.25 GHz 4 MB L3 cache per core (up to 32MB for 8-core) Sun Niagara 3 16 cores with 8 threads 1.67 GHz 6 MB L2 cache

9 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #9 Xeon vs Pentium/Core CPUs Xeon based on Pentium/Core with changes that vary by model: –Allows more CPUs –Has more cores –Better hyperthreading –Faster/larger CPU caches –Faster/larger RAM support

10 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #10 System Buses Servers need high I/O throughput. –Fast peripherals: SCSI-3, Gigabit ethernet –Often use multiple and/or faster buses. PCI –Desktop: 32-bit 33 MHz, 133 MB/s –Server: 64-bit 66 MHz, 533 MB/s PCI-X (backward compatible) –v1.0: 64-bit 133 MHz, 1.06 GB/s –v2.0: 64-bit 533 MHz, 4.3 GB/s PCI Express (PCIe) –Serial architecture, v3.0 up to 16 GB/s

11 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #11 Hardware Redundancy Disks are most likely component to fail. –Use RAID for disk redundancy. –Cover in detail in Disks lecture. Power supplies second most likely to fail. –Use redundant power supplies. –Many servers need 2 power supplies normally. –Need 3 power supplies for redundancy. –Use separate power cord and UPS for each power supply.

12 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #12 Full and n+1 Redundancy n+1 Redundancy: One component can fail, but the system is still functional. –Ex: RAID 5, dual NICs with failover Full Redundancy: Two complete sets of hardware configured with failover mechanism. –Manual: SA switches to 2 nd system when notices failure. –Automatic: The second system monitors the first and switches over automatically on failure. –Load-sharing: Both systems serve users, sharing load, but each has capacity to handle entire load on its own. When one fails, other automatically handles entire load.

13 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #13 Hot-swap Components Hot-swap components –Components can be replaced while running. –Need n+1 redundancy for this to be useful. –Don’t need to schedule a downtime. Issues –Which parts are hot-swappable? –May require a few seconds to reconfigure. –Be sure components are hot-swap, not hot-plug.

14 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #14 Hot Plug and Hot Spare Hot Plug –Electrically safe to replace component. –Part may not be recognized until next reboot. –Requires downtime, unlike hot swap. Hot Spare –Spare component already plugged into system. –System automatically uses hot spare when disk/CPU board etc. fails. –Provides n+2 redundancy.

15 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #15 Separate Administrative Network Reliability –Allows access to machines even when network is down. Performance –Backups require so much bandwidth that they’re often done over their own network. Security –Network security monitoring data and logs sent across network should be secured.

16 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #16 Maintenance Contracts All machines eventually break. Vendors offer variety of maint contracts. Non-critical: Next-day or 2-day contract. Clusters: If you have many similar hosts (CPU or web farm), then on-site spares may be cheaper than maintenance contract. Controlled Model: Use small # of machine types for all servers, so you can afford a spares kit. Critical Host: Same-day response or on-site spares. Highly Critical: On-site technician + dup machine.

17 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #17 Data Protection Avoid desktop backups by storing data on servers. Easy on UNIX, harder on Windows. Use RAID for server hardware failures. –Mirror root disk, higher RAID levels for data. –Some servers use 16GB Flash drives for root disk. –Doesn’t protect against software mistakes. Server backups –Use specialized admin network to keep load off main network. –Use specialized tape jukeboxes to fully automate backups of large data servers (DBs, fileservers).

18 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #18 Keep Servers in Data Center Data center necessary for server reliability. –Power (enough power, UPS) –Climate control (temperature, humidity) –Fire protection –High-speed network –Physical security

19 Server Operating Systems CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #19

20 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #20 Server OS Image Need greater reliability, security than desktop. –Remove unnecessary OS components. –Configure for best security & performance. Install and config specialized server software. –Server software: web, db, nfs, dns, ldap, etc. –May need monitoring software too. –Configuration: disk space, networking Server OS install should be automated too.

21 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #21 Remote Administration Servers must be accessible remotely. –Allows SA to fix problems quickly at 3am. –Allows SA to work outside machine room. Remote Administration –Serial console and concentrator (UNIX) –Networked KVM (Windows) –Remote power control. –Important to secure remote admin facilities.

22 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #22 Server Appliances Dedicated hardware + software –Fileserver (NetApp, Auspex) –Print servers –Routers Advantages –Performance –Reliability –Easy to setup –Extra capabilities Disadvantages –Cost

23 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #23 Many Inexpensive Workstations Why buy server hardware? –Buy two cheap rack- mount PCs + failover software. –Works if two PCs cheaper than server. –Google’s approach with ~450,000 servers.

24 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #24 Blade Servers High-density servers on a board. –CPU –Memory –Disk Each blade lives in a blade chassis.

25 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #25 Blade Chassis Blade chassis provides power, network, remote. Typically hot- swappable, hot-spare. Racks can only support 1 svr/RU. Blades are higher density, but also require more power and cooling.

26 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #26 Key Points Servers vs desktops –Requirements and hardware differences. Redundancy –Full vs n+k redundancy. –Hot plug vs hot spare. Services –Requirements: service, server, customer, operational. –Machine independence and open architectures. Performance –Latency vs. throughput.

27 CIT 470: Advanced Network and System AdministrationSlide #27 References 1.Thomas Limoncelli, Christine Hogan, Strata Chalup, The Practice of System and Network Administration, 2 nd ed, Limoncelli and Hogan, Addison-Wesley, Evi Nemeth et al, UNIX System Administration Handbook, 3 rd edition, Prentice Hall, Wikipedia,


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