Presentation on theme: "The Theatre by Robert Cohen Chapter 8"— Presentation transcript:
1The Theatre by Robert Cohen Chapter 8 THE MODERN THEATREThe Theatre by Robert Cohen Chapter 8
2Modern and PostmodernPrevious ages include – Classical (Greece and Rome) Medieval (Mystery and Morality Plays) Renaissance (The Elizabethan Age in England) The Royal Theatre (The Court Theatre of Spain and France) The Restoration The Romantic Theatre (Neoclassical) THEATRE IN THE EAST India (Sanskrit drama, Kathakali) China (Xiqu) Japan (Noh, Kabuki, Bunraku)
3Modern and Postmodern Modern drama is said to date from about 1875. Fed by revolutions in the US and France in the 18th century.Simultaneous to the political revolutions were revolutions in philosophy, science and religion.Important treatises of the “modern era”Darwin ORIGIN OF THE SPECIESKarl Marx DAS KAPITAL
6REALISMwas the first expression of a modern theatre was a theatre of experimentation
7REALISMRealism as a reaction against ROMANTICISM sought to develop an aesthetic that was not abstract, rather, one that was “like life.”
8REALISMThe romantics and neoclassicists sought art that was like life or an idealized life. The realists sought to present art that was life.
9REALISMAs a form of artistic expression, it was tested in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in all aspects of expression and remains an enormously significant style today.
10REALISM WAS CONCEIVED AS A LABORATORY Objectify society in an effort to study it scientifically Thus realism adhered to the scientific method
11THE LOWER DEPTHS AT Moscow art theatre (1902) Early on, the proscenium stage was modified to accommodate a new form of scenery – THE BOX SET and the aesthetic became the “theatre of the fourth wall removed”
12TECHNIQUES OF REALISMPRESENT THE AUDIENCE WITH “EVIDENCE” AND PERMIT EACH SPECTATOR TO ARRIVE AT HIS OR HER OWN CONCLUSIONS...Woody Harrelson in a realistic production of Tennessee William’s THE NIGHT OF THE IGUANALondon, 2005.
13PIONEERS OF REALISM Henrik Ibsen, 1828-1906 A Doll’s House (pictured) Hedda GablerGhosts An Enemy of the People
14Andre ANTOINE (1858-1943) founded the Theatre libre in 1897 to stage realistic drama
15DAMAGED GOODS by Eugene Brieux (1858-1932) was a realistic play about syphilis “Brieux was among the few of his day to treat the question in a frank manner, showing that the most dangerous phase of venereal disease is ignorance and fear, and that if treated openly and intelligently, it is perfectly curable. Brieux also emphasizes the importance of kindness and consideration for those who contract the affliction, since it has nothing to do with what is commonly called evil, immorality, or impurity.”
16GERHARD HAUPTMANN (1862-1946) Germany The Weavers, 1892
17George bernard shaw (1856-1950) MisallianceMrs Warrens Profession
20Chekhov reading the sea gull to the cast at the moscow art theatre (1896)
21Stanislaski as astrov in chekhov’s uncle vanya (1899)
22CHEKHOV’S TECHNIQUEHe created deeply complex relationships with his characters. As an example see this scene from THE THREE SISTERS (1901) VERSHININ I have the honor to introduce myself, my name is Vershinin. I am very, very glad to be in your house at last. IRINA Please sit down. We are delighted to see you. VERSHININ (with animation) How glad I am, how glad I am! But there are three of you sisters. I remember—three little girls. I don't remember your faces, but that your father, Colonel Prozorov, had three little girls I remember perfectly, and saw them with my own eyes. How time passes! Hey-ho, how it passes! IRINA From Moscow? You have come from Moscow? VERSHININ Yes. Your father was in command of a battery there, and I was an officer in the same brigade. [To MASHA] Your face, now, I seem to remember. MASHA I don't remember you. VERSHININ So you are Olga Sergeyevna, the eldest And you are Marya And you are Irina, the youngest OLGA You come from Moscow? VERSHININ Yes. I studied in Moscow. I used to visit you in Moscow
23CHEKHOV’S REALISTIC STYLE Although Masha and Vershinin will become lovers in the course of the action, they are seen here as distant and engaging in the type of small talk that people engage in real life. This type of scene required a realistic form of acting to develop the Subtext of the scene which is not explicit in the text. THE REALISTIC DRAMA gave rise to a realistic style of acting as practiced at the Moscow Art Theatre.
24DRIVING MISS DAISY BROADWAY 2010 Realistic plays do not necessarily require realistic scenery.
26Naturalism vs. realismTo proponents of naturalism, behavior was predetermined by environmentSocial ills were not changeableThey sought to express art as a “slice of life...”...and sought to eliminate every vestige of dramatic convention. Zola’s manifesto declared that “all the great successes of the stage are triumphs over convention.”These ideas are clearly expressed in three works...
27Miss julie (1892) August Strindberg This domestic “tragedy” plays out in real time and recountsthe seduction of a Count’s daughter by her father’s groom.The play ends with the Miss Julie’s suicide and the groom’sreturn to this duties. The play dates from the same time period as Ibsen’s A DOLL’S HOUSE and marked a turning point in Strindberg’s style of writing.
29LA RONDE (1900) ARTHUR SCHNITZLER Arthur Schnitzler's play depicts love as a bitterly comic merry-go-round and was deemed immoral by American censors and banned from entering the country for many years. It is told in ten sketches in which an interconnecting group of lovers changes partners until the liaisons come full circle...Nicole Kidman was featured in the English Version of La Ronde, Blue Room
30LA RONDE by ARTHUR SCHNITZLER The Max Ophuls film (1950)
31EUGENE O’NEILL’S LONG DAYS JOURNEY INTO NIGHT (1956) Broadway, 2003
32American playwrights influenced by realism and naturalism Arthur Miller Tennessee Williams August Wilson Wendy Wasserstein David Mamet Neil LaButeMiller’s DEATH OF A SALESMAN
34ANTIREALISM MOVEMEMTS Symbolism (Paris, 1880s) Maeterlinck’s THE BLUEBIRD, 1896
35Tenants of symbolismReaction against realism which expressed outward realityFocus upon inner realities that cannot be directly perceivedReplace reality with poetry, imagery, novelty, fantasy, extravagence, profundity, audacity, charm and superhuman magnitudePurity of vision rather than accuracy of observation was the symbolists’ aim
36Proponents of symbolism in france Paul Fort ( )Maurice Maeterlinck ( )
37SymbolistsDefined (in part) by competition between competing organizationsTheatre d’Art Paul FortTheatre Illustre Andre AntoineTheir theatre’s “war” brought writers like Arthur Rumbaud, Maurice Maeterlinck and Edgar Allen Poe to the stage and artists like Pierre Bonnard and Maurice Denis
38Paul fort produced maeterlinck’s the intruder (1890) A contemporary production ofThe Intruder
39Other notablE WORKS OF SYMBOLISM Alfred Jarry’s UBU ROI (1898)1904
40Strindberg’s a dream play (1902) Directed by Diane Paulus, 2006
41IBSEN’s WHEN WE DEAD AWAKEN (1899) A Swedish production, 2008
42A new style of production Realistic directors like Antoine and Stanislavsky were challenged by scores of new directors. Notable among them was another director from the Moscow Art Theatre......VsevolodMeyerhold( )
69created & performed by Mike Daisey directed by Jean-Michele Gregory Appropriate for ages 14 and up. Running Time: Approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes (no intermission)
70WATER (2013) a play about global warming Brooklyn Academy of Music
71THE CURIOUS INCIDENT OF THE DOG IN THE NIGHT-TIME
72Summary MODERN THEATRE Today’s theatre is and can be anything and everything. As styles merge, blend, morph, reconfigure—all theatre remains essentially one of two forms: Representational (realism) -or- Presentational (stylized) Individual artists will continue to explore old and new forms so long as audiences come.