Presentation on theme: "SPUD FS XXI Tactical Flight Mission Planning and Map Preparation C Co. 1-212 Aviation Regiment Lowe Army Airfield SPUD Ver 4.1."— Presentation transcript:
SPUD FS XXI Tactical Flight Mission Planning and Map Preparation C Co. 1-212 Aviation Regiment Lowe Army Airfield SPUD Ver 4.1
SPUD TC 1-237 Aircrew Training Manual Utility Helicopter H-60 Series Ft. Rucker Tactical Flight Mission Planning and Map Preparation Guide FM 3-04.203 Fundamentals of Flight FM 3-04.113 Utility and Cargo Helicopter Operations FM 90-4 Air Assault Operations TC 1-400 Aviation Brigade Element FM 4-20.197 Multiservice Helicopter Slingload: Basic Operation and Equipment FM 101-5 Staff Organization and Operations References
SPUD Primary and alternate routing Route planning considerations General rules for checkpoints Landing/Pickup zone (LZ/PZ) considerations Map preparation Mission packets Crew briefing Crew Coordination Topics Covered
SPUD Task 2012 Perform Tactical Flight Mission Planning TASK 2012 PERFORM TACTICAL FLIGHT MISSION PLANNING CONDITIONS: Before flight in an H-60 helicopter and given a mission briefing, navigational maps, a navigational computer, approved mission software (if available), and other flight planning materials as required. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications: 1. Analyze the mission using the mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, and support available, time available and civil considerations (METT-TC) factors available. 2. Perform a map/photo reconnaissance using the available map media or photos. Ensure that all known hazards to terrain flight are plotted or entered into the approved mission planning software (if applicable). 3. Select the appropriate altitude(s) and terrain flight modes as appropriate. 4. Select appropriate primary and alternate routes and enter all of them on a map, route sketch, or into the approved mission planning software. 5. Determine the distance ± 1 kilometer, ground speed ± 5 knots, and estimated time en route (ETE) ± 1 minute for each leg of flight. 6. Determine the fuel required and reserve per AR 95-1 ± 100 pounds. 7. Obtain and analyze weather briefing to determine that weather and environmental conditions are adequate to complete the mission. 8. Conduct a thorough crew mission briefing.
SPUD Primary and Alternate Routing Start Point (SP) and Release Point (RP): The first step is to identify tentative SPs and RPs. The distance from the RP to the LZ should allow the flight leader to reconfigure the formation and execute a tactical formation landing, if required. Air Control Point (ACP): An easily identifiable point on the terrain or an electronic NAVAID used to provide necessary control during air movement. ACPs should be progressively closer as an aircraft nears the objective, facilitating timing and navigation. When selecting ACPs, consideration should be given to points that provide funneling and barriers in order to facilitate en route navigation. Checkpoints- All waypoints are checkpoints. Certain checkpoints are utilized for special applications. They are as follows:
SPUD Primary and Alternate Routing (Continued) Communication Checkpoint (CCP): An ACP may be further designated as a CCP. A CCP is a point along the flight route where serial commanders report to the AMC. Radio transmissions are made only when necessary using brevity and/or code words. Check Point (CP): A CP is a predetermined point on the ground used to control movement, tactical maneuver, and maintain orientation. (DOD, NATO) A CP may be used as a means of controlling aircraft in flight, registration target for fire adjustment, reference for location, or geographical location above which an aircraft in flight may determine its position. Rally Points (ground or aerial): Points that are used and selected by the AMC between the SP and RP as a point at which the flight can safely reassemble and reorganize if they become dispersed. Also, Rally Points can be used as a downed aircrew pick-up point (also known as DAP, Bullseye, or SARDOT).
SPUD Primary and Alternate Routing (Continued) Downed Aircrew Pick-up Points: Points plotted along the primary and alternate routes that should be identifiable from the air and ground, and should be established on the mission route, in or near hostile territory. Recovery times will normally be given in the unit’s Tactical SOP. Crew members should reference Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR)/Special Instructions (SPINS) publications (also known as DAP, Bullseye, or SARDOT). Preplanned Artillery and Tactical Air Forces (TACAIR): Preplanned possible enemy target locations must be annotated on your map.
SPUD Route Planning Considerations Route planning considerations- The route for the mission must be tactically sound, yet not so difficult as to preclude ease of navigation. The following are considerations for planning and plotting the route: Determine what portions of the route will be flown above/below terrain flight altitudes. The easiest, quickest and least hazardous mode of terrain flight is Low Level. It should be used whenever the threat situation allows. Contour and NOE are progressively slower, more difficult, more hazardous, and should only be used when the threat situation dictates. As a rule of thumb, use NOE when flying within the effective range of the threat weapon systems. Use Contour when flying within 10 -15 Kilometers of the maximum effective range of the threat weapons systems. Plan alternate ingress and egress flight routes. Locate the SP 3 to 8 kilometers from the PZ, the flight route starts at the SP.
SPUD Route Planning Considerations (Continued) Route planning considerations (continued)- Locate the RP 3 to 8 kilometers from the LZ for primary and alternate routes, the flight route ends at the RP. Use prominent, distinct terrain features located along the flight route that facilitates navigation, control of speed, and control of en route fires as ACPs. Plan that no turn in the route exceeds 60 degrees, especially if slingloads or multi-ship formations are involved. Plan that routes are at least two kilometers wide. Ensure the course to the RP is within 30 degrees of the final course and the final course is within 30 degrees of the LZ landing heading.
SPUD General rules in route planning : Each mission will differ and involve numerous variables. The general rules for planning include: If the threat allows, planning straight line legs is the preferred method of navigation. Avoid built up areas and population centers. Avoid planning the route near navigational aids or airports. Plan the route to take advantage of cover and concealment. Use valleys and low ground to optimize the tactical considerations. Avoid planning route segments into a rising or setting sun. During multi-aircraft missions, avoid heading changes of more than 5 degrees once past the release point for landing. Select intermediate check points along the route in addition to waypoints and ACPs. This will aid navigation and timing. Cross roads and railroads at large angles (90 degrees) to reduce exposure. General Rules in Route Planning
SPUD General rules in route planning (Continued): Avoid retracing your steps (e.g., flying the same route into/out of the objective). Select routes that do not follow man-made linear features. Select routes where recognizable terrain features are located. Avoid flight near population centers or major roads. Plot time hacks for prominent intersecting features. Anticipate wires on roads, towers, & buildings in open fields. Avoid open areas or large bodies of water where terrain permits. Plan routes over terrain that is inaccessible to wheeled or tracked vehicles. Route timing will start at initial takeoff and count cumulatively throughout the route. General Rules in Route Planning (Continued)
SPUD General Rules for Checkpoints 08 04 05 06 07
SPUD General rules in checkpoints: Checkpoints are prominent features close enough to the route to aid in navigation. The following are some selection criteria for ACP’s, SP’s, RP’s, and checkpoints: CPs should be unique natural or manmade features which are detectable at a distance. Avoid selecting CPs near towns. If the town has grown since the map was published, the CP will be difficult to detect. CPs should be confirmed by at least one, but preferably two adjacent features. Select a barrier at turn points and landing sites. The RP is the most important CP. It should be an easily identifiable feature within 3-8 kilometers of the landing site in the landing direction. ACPs should be plotted 5 to 20 kilometers apart when using map scales of 1:100,000 and below. General Rules for Checkpoints
SPUD Landing zone considerations: The LZ is where the ground and aviation forces separate and is the critical moment in the air assault (AASLT). The following are considerations for LZs: Serials that are combat cross loaded may dictate specific landing requirements. Separate serials by a minimum of one minute or more, based on conditions. Aircraft serials should land ± 50 meters from the ground commander’s intended point of landing. LZ/PZ Considerations
SPUD Landing zone considerations (continued): Aircraft should land ± 30 seconds from the air movement table (AMT) touchdown time. Aircraft should land ±15 degrees from the planned landing heading. Ground forces may exit from one or both doors of the aircraft (METT-TC dependent). Ground forces should offload aircraft within 30 seconds or less. Ground forces should be positioned in the tree line within 1 minute or less after serial takeoff. Vehicles should be cleared from the LZ within 5 minutes of touchdown or less (this includes the 2 minutes of load landing and crew offload). LZ/PZ Considerations (Continued)
SPUD Map Preparation Map preparation- Map preparation is an important part of the mission planning process. The following are techniques and considerations to be used when you prepare your maps for Flight School XXI: Use a marker or pencil that leaves a clear, legible line. Water-soluble pens work well, as the lines can be easily removed after the mission is over or to prevent compromise if captured. Plot threat/restrictions. Plot PZs/LZs. Plot primary/alternate routes. Plot CPs. Place distance tick-marks along the left side of the course line. The tick-marks will start at the next succeeding waypoint counting up in the direction to the preceding waypoint. Place and number the tick-marks by each one-kilometer increment for the first five kilometers, then by each five-kilometer increment.
SPUD Map Preparation (Continued) Map preparation (continued)- Place distance tick-marks along the left side of the course line. The tick-marks will start at the next succeeding waypoint counting up in the direction to the preceding waypoint. Place and number the tick-marks by each one-kilometer increment for the first five kilometers, then by each five-kilometer increment. Prepare maps available for a minimum of 10 kilometers on either side of the route (especially when printing strip maps). Do not over prepare the map. Too many lines may lead to confusion. Transfer key features and hazards from VFR sectionals, tactical maps, and CHUM to the maps, as necessary. All writing should be oriented in the direction of flight for that particular leg. Standardize map preparation and symbology within the unit so that any aviator can use a map prepared by another aviator. Caution: Maps marked with classified information become classified and must be handled and stored according to security regulations.
SPUD Map Preparation (Continued) 048 3+45 14.5 Air Control Point Start/Release Point LZ/PZ/OBJ Heading to next ACP/waypoint Time to next ACP/waypoint in minutes/seconds Distance to next ACP/waypoint in KM Course Line – A solid line placed on the map to mark routes flown at low level and contour. A dotted line is used to mark route segments flown at NOE. A dashed line is used to mark alternate route segments. Map Symbology 4 Number of next waypoint 08
SPUD Mission Packets Route Card The route card contains information essential to navigation and is used as a backup to the route already planned. The FS XXI UH-60 Tactical Route Card is the only approved route card for use by FS XXI students. Crew/Frequency Card The crew/frequency card contains information regarding the crews assigned and communications frequencies required for the mission. Frequencies for certain phases of the mission (e.g., ACP 3 to ACP 8) are known as COMSETs and should be printed on the route card to enhance cockpit organization and preclude confusion. Aircrew duties should also be assigned (e.g., flight lead, back-up nav) on the crew/frequency card to distribute mission workloads among the flight.
SPUD Mission Packets (Continued) LZ/PZ Card The LZ/PZ card is used as a graphic illustration of the objective based on the map reconnaissance and/or imagery. During the mission brief, all tactical considerations of the objective will be briefed IAW T-SLOW referencing the Monthly Inspection of Training Areas (MITA). Mission Packet Evaluation Requirements At a minimum, the Crew/Frequency, Route, and LZ/PZ cards will be produced, in this order, for the mission with an additional copy of the packet provided to the evaluator. Additional cards (e.g., cover sheet, waypoint card, IIMC card) may be produced at the discretion of the student pilot.
SPUD Crew Briefing After all pre-mission planning and final coordination has been accomplished, complete the aircrew mission brief. All aspects of the mission will be briefed in detail with special attention focusing on the flight route.
SPUD Crew Briefing (Continued) Crew briefing: After the mission briefing has been accomplished, brief the aircrew. At a minimum, the following items should be briefed for the route: Overall concept of the mission. Takeoff point to SP ground speed. RP to PZ/LZ ground speed. En route portion ground speed and altitudes. Any turns greater than 60°. Landing time for each route of the mission. Landing direction. PZ/LZ information (IAW TSLOW). Tactical situation. Size Long axis Obstacles Winds
SPUD Crew Coordination Cockpit communication: The navigator must give the pilot timely, clear, and accurate information. Examples of common phraseology prior to a CP include: Description of the succeeding CP. Direction and magnitude of turn, if any. Change in airspeed, if any. Low-level flight: During low level flight, the navigator may give the pilot a specific altitude, airspeed, and heading or track (Doppler/GPS).
SPUD Crew Coordination (Continued) Contour/NOE flight: The navigator must use guidance or rally terms. Examples of common phraseology during contour/NOE flight include: Clock positions for turns. Clearly identifiable terrain features. Turn left/right and stop turn commands, as required. Examples: “The next checkpoint is a dam. At the dam, you will be turning right to your two o’clock and slowing down to 60 knots groundspeed. “Turn left to your ten o’clock.” or “Turn right and fly towards that saddle on the right side of the hill.” “Right turn”, “Stop turn.”, “Turn to a heading of 240 degrees”
SPUD Review Primary and alternate routing Route planning considerations General rules for waypoints/ACPs LZ/PZ considerations Map preparation Mission packets Crew briefing Crew Coordination
SPUD Questions? C Co. 1-212 Aviation Regiment Lowe Army Airfield