Presentation on theme: "Greatest extent = 6000 miles E-W Covered an area of 9,000,000 sq miles (16% of the earth’s land mass) Controlled over 100 million people Depending on."— Presentation transcript:
Greatest extent = 6000 miles E-W Covered an area of 9,000,000 sq miles (16% of the earth’s land mass) Controlled over 100 million people Depending on the source: responsible for the death of 30-60 million people
C 17: Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Integration Who were the Turks of the 10 th C? (Saljuq Turks?) (why liberators not conquerers?) Lived on the border of the Abbasid Empire: eventually dominated them by the mid 11 th century Nomadic Trade links between nomadic and sedentary peoples Governance was/is clan based Charismatic individuals become nobles/ respected Age of Nomadic Empires: 1000-1500 CE Who are these people? Where are they?
Saljuq Turks eventually dominate the Abbassid Empire 1055 CE: Saljuq Turk named Sultan: caliphs remain figureheads 1071 CE: Saljuq Turks defeat Byzantine army/ invade Anatolia 1453 CE: Ottoman Turks (Mehmed II) conquer Constantinople By 13 th C: Sultanate of Delhi is established (Ghazanavid Turks) (they are Islamic) persecution of Hindus and Buddhists there Turkish Empires and their Neighbors: 1210 CE
1453: Sultan Mehmed II (“Mehmed the Conquerer”) Constantinople renamed Istanbul = capital of the Ottoman Empire I conquered Constantinople with 80-200,000 troops and a navy of 320 vessels. I was extremely tolerant of diverse religions and established the millet system. I spoke 7 languages fluently and supported education.
There were three notable times when the chain across the Horn was either broken or circumvented. In the 10th century the Kievan Rus’ dragged their longships out of the Bosporus, around Galatia, and relaunched them in the Horn; the Byzantines defeated them with Greek fire. In 1204, during the Fourth Crusade, Venetian ships were able to break the chain with a ram. In 1453, Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, having failed in his attempt to break the chain with brute force, instead used the same tactic as the Rus’ towing his ships across Galata into the estuary over greased logs.
Chinggis Khan (1167-1227 CE) Steppe diplomacy?? All Mongol tribes united as one confederation 1206: proclaimed Chinggis Khan “universal ruler” Military units of men from different tribes Promoted on basis of merit and loyalty Mongols = 1 million (<1% of China) Mongol army = 100,000-125,000 (10% of population) CONQUEROR not an administrator Psychological Warfare Forging alliances? Explanations for success? Religion?
The greatest joy a man can know is to conquer his enemies and drive them before him. To ride their horses and take their possessions. To see the faces of those who were dear to them be dewed with tears and to clasp their wives and daughters in his arms. I enjoy subjugation
According to one account of Chinggis's death, a funeral cortege escorted his body to northeast Mongolia, where he was buried in an undisclosed location along with 40 horses and 40 virgins.
Conquered China 1220 CE Conquered Afghanistan and Persia Ravaged lands, destroyed everything (qanats) (won’t be able to rebuild until the 20 th C) “ Submit and Live, Resist and Die”
Skull towers of 20,000-80,000 conqueror not a governor/ invaded N India/ sacked Delhi Planned to invade China… then died May have killed as many as 17 million people Heirs = Mughal, Safavid Ottoman Empires (Osman) Tamerlane the Conquerer (1336-1405) Collapse of the Mongols? Legacy of the Mongols?
REPORT CARD: LEGACY: The Mongols Step 1: (Individual) Give the Mongols a GRADE (A,B,C,D,F) for each of the categories listed. Provide evidence as justification for your grade. Step 2: (Individual): Analyze the four short Mongol documents. Step 3: (GROUP) Compare grades with your table. Come to a consensus for each category. Be prepared to share grades as well as POV statements.
RISEFALL Analyze the rise and fall of the Mongol empires.
RISEFALL Genghis Khan unite Mongol tribes by 1206 Genghis Khan controlled northern China by 1220 Died in 1227 HOW: ecological changes = drought on steppes 1180-1220 prompted Mongols to expand/seek grasslands Trade disruptions: attempts by Chinese to interrupt trade= more Mongol raiding Charismatic leader, steppe diplomacy = able to reconfigure alliance system Organized new military strategies Encouraged high value placed on demonstrations of personal courage/ loyalty Kublai Khan especially noteworthy Death of Genghis Khan: no successor/ no guiding principle for how to determine a successor Difficulty for Mongols to transfer loyalty beyond Genghis Khan and beyond the level of the tribe Some traditional Mongols opposed the idea of making concessions in order to live a sedentary lifestyle Mongol Empire then too big: divide into 4 khanates Yuan Dynasty collapse: tried to issue paper money with no backing/ power struggles/ assassinations/ civil war by 1368 Chinese pushed Mongols back to steppes… Ilkhanate of Persia: excessive spending, over utilization of resources/ tried to issue paper money and force people to use it (closed up shops rather than use the$$) Internal power struggles/ no clear line of succession ALL effected by the spread of the bubonic plague by 1330s…. Mongols inadvertently accelerated its spread through secure trade routes Analyze the rise and fall of the Mongol empires.