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The Founding Period Revolutionary War and the Articles of Confederation.

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Presentation on theme: "The Founding Period Revolutionary War and the Articles of Confederation."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Founding Period Revolutionary War and the Articles of Confederation

3 Overview Review Declaration and Revolution Forms of Government –Unitary –Confederal Articles of Confederation

4 Review Early Colonial History –Different religious, cultural, ethnic groupings Geopolitical balance of power in New World –England, France, Spain, Dutch all have presence plus native American populations

5 Review French & Indian War* (1754-1763) Clash based on competing claims as English and French seek to expand colonial claims and native American populations try to resist the European expansion *referred to as the “7 Years War” in UK and Canada; as the “Guerre de la conquete” by the French

6 Review Principal areas of engagement in the French & Indian War

7 Review Parliament levies taxes to help defray cost of war Colonists reject taxation without representation and the response of the King

8 Review Colonial unrest begins to get violent 13 colonies agree to hold meeting to discuss the deteriorating situation First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia in 1774 Drafts “Articles of Association,” the first document unifying the 13 colonies and outlining a policy of trade embargoes

9 Review Second Continental Congress (May 1775) Declaration of Independence (1776)Declaration of Independence Revolution (1775- 1781)

10 Review Treaty of Paris (1783) Negotiated by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay Negotiated and signed 3 September 1783; approved by the Continental Congress on 14 January 1784.

11 Treaty of Paris signatory page

12 Review Need to develop plan for government after the war is over 1777-1781 begin to draft the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union 1783 Articles are ratified (approved)

13 Forms of Government: Unitary Government Sovereign Government

14 Forms of Government: Confederations C B D States A

15 Forms of Government: Confederations SG SG = Sovereign Governments

16 Forms of Government: Confederations SG National Government is not Sovereign National Government

17 Articles of Confederation First post-revolution government of the United States Decentralized with power dispersed throughout the states Weak national government

18 Articles of Confederation Basic Structure Powers of National Government Powers of State Government

19 Articles of Confederation Basic Structure of National Government –Unicameral Legislature Each state equal Delegations of 2 to 7 members, 1 vote per delegation Delegates may serve no more than 3 of every 6 years

20 Articles of Confederation No independent executive –i.e., no president, king, prime minister –Congress elects a “presiding officer” No national judiciary –each state is responsible for its own judicial system Amendment required the approval of all 13 state legislatures

21 Articles of Confederation Powers of National Government –Foreign Policy/National Defense –Maintain roads and postal system –Coin money –Borrow Money –Levy taxes –Standardize weights and measures

22 Articles of Confederation Powers Denied National Government –Collect Taxes –Force states to contribute –Force states to meet military quotas –Force states to respect treaties signed –Force states to enforce laws enacted

23 Articles of Confederation Powers of State Governments –Regulate Intrastate commerce –Maintain state militia –Collect Taxes –Print Money –Enforce the law

24 Articles of Confederation Real political power devolves to state governments State governments redraw constitutions and reconfigure their colonial governments –10 of the 13 had new constitutions drafted in 1776 All state governments had bills of rights either as separate parts of the constitution or integrated directly into the constitution –PA, VA, MA all began with the bill of rights

25 Articles of Confederation State Constitutions –limited executive power short terms; chosen by state legislature “Collegial” executive in PA –strengthened legislative power Closer to the people

26 Post Revolutionary U.S. Economic Problems –Depression/Recession –Inflation –Increasing Bankruptcy Political Problems –Shays’ Rebellion (1786)

27 Post Revolutionary US "Rebellion against a king may be pardoned, or lightly punished, but the man who dares to rebel against the laws of a republic ought to suffer death.“ -- Samuel Adams

28 “Fixing” the Articles Annapolis Convention (September 11, 1786) –work on the economic problems of the new government –strengthen national government

29 “Fixing” the Articles Philadelphia Convention (May 1787) –Aim is to “revise” the Articles of Confederation –Twelve of the 13 states send delegates to the Convention –Convention opens officially on 25 MayConvention

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