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Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–1 BUSINESS-LEVEL STRATEGY
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–2 Business-Level Strategy (Defined) An integrated and coordinated set of commitments and actions the firm uses to gain a competitive advantage by exploiting core competencies in specific product markets
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–3 Key Issues Business-Level Strategy Business-levelStrategy Which good or service to provide How to manufacture it How to distribute it
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–4 Customers: Business-Level Strategic Issues Customers are the foundation of successful business-level strategy Who will be served by the strategy? What needs those target customers have that the strategy will satisfy? How those needs will be satisfied by the strategy?
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–5 Customers: Who, What, Where Firms must manage all aspects of their relationship with customers Reach: firm’s success and connection to customers Richness: depth and detail of two-way flow of information between the firm and the customer Affiliation: facilitation of useful interactions with customers
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–6 Customer Needs—Who? Determining the Customers to Serve Customers IndustrialMarkets ConsumerMarkets Market Segmentation
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–7 Basis for Customer Segmentation Consumer Markets 1.Demographic factors (age, income, sex, etc.) 2.Socioeconomic factors (social class, stage in the family life cycle) 3.Geographic factors (cultural, regional, and national differences) 4.Psychological factors (lifestyle, personality traits) 5.Consumption patterns (heavy, moderate, and light users) 6.Perceptual factors (benefit segmentation, perceptual mapping) SOURCE: Adapted from S. C. Jain, 2000, Marketing Planning and Strategy, Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing, 120. Table 4.1
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–8 Basis for Customer Segmentation (cont’d) Industrial Markets 1.End-use segments (identified by SIC code) 2.Product segments (based on technological differences or production economics) 3.Geographic segments (defined by boundaries between countries or by regional differences within them) 4.Common buying factor segments (cut across product market and geographic segments) 5.Customer size segments SOURCE: Adapted from S. C. Jain, 2000, Marketing Planning and Strategy, Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing, 120. Table 4.1
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–9 Market Segmentation: Consumer Markets Demographic factors Socioeconomic factors Geographic factors Psychological factors Consumption patterns Perceptual factors Consumer Markets Demographic Socioeconomic Geographic Psychological Consumption Perceptual
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–10 Industrial Markets End-use Product Geographic Common buying factor Customer size Market Segmentation: Industrial Markets End-use segments Product segments Geographic segments Common buying factor segments Customer size segments
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–11 Customer Needs—What? Customer Needs to Satisfy Customer needs are related to a product’s benefits and features Customer needs are neither right nor wrong, good nor bad Customer needs represent desires in terms of features and performance capabilities
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–12 Customer Needs—How? Determining the Core Competencies Necessary to Satisfy Customer Needs Firms use core competencies to implement value creating strategies that satisfy customers’ needs Only firms with capacity to continuously improve, innovate and upgrade their competencies can expect to meet and/or exceed customer expectations across time
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–13 Types of Business-Level Strategy Business-Level Strategies Are intended to create differences between the firm’s position relative to those of its rivals To position itself, the firm must decide whether it intends to: Perform activities differently or Perform different activities as compared to its rivals
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–14 Types of Potential Competitive Advantage Achieving lower overall costs than rivals Performing activities differently (cheaper process) Possessing the capability to differentiate the firm’s product or service and command a premium price Performing different (valuable) activities
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–15 Two Targets of Competitive Scope Broad Scope The firm competes in many customer segments Narrow Scope The firm selects a segment or group of segments in the industry and tailors its strategy to serving them at the exclusion of others
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–16 Five Business- Level Strategies
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–17 Cost Leadership Strategy An integrated set of actions taken to produce goods or services with features that are acceptable to customers at the lowest cost, relative to that of competitors with features that are acceptable to customers Relatively standardized products Features acceptable to many customers Lowest competitive price
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–18 Cost Leadership Strategy Cost saving actions required by this strategy: Building efficient scale facilities Tightly controlling production costs and overhead Minimizing costs of sales, R&D and service Building efficient manufacturing facilities Monitoring costs of activities provided by outsiders Simplifying production processes
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–19 How to Obtain a Cost Advantage Cost Drivers Value Chain Determine and control Reconfigure, if needed Alter production process Change in automation New distribution channel New advertising media Direct sales in place of indirect sales New raw material Forward integration Backward integration Change location relative to suppliers or buyers
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–20 Examples of Value- Creating Activities Associated with the Cost Leadership Strategy Figure 4.2
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–21 Value-Creating Activities for Cost Leadership Cost-effective MIS Few management layers Simplified planning Consistent policies Effecting training Easy-to-use manufacturing technologies Investments in technologies Finding low cost raw materials Monitor suppliers’ performances Link suppliers’ products to production processes Economies of scale Efficient-scale facilities Effective delivery schedules Low-cost transportation Highly trained sales force Proper pricing
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–22 Cost Leadership Strategy (cont’d) Competitive Risks Processes used to produce and distribute good or service may become obsolete due to competitors’ innovations Focus on cost reductions may occur at expense of customers’ perceptions of differentiation Competitors, using their own core competencies, may successfully imitate the cost leader’s strategy
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–23 Differentiation Strategy An integrated set of actions taken to produce goods or services (at an acceptable cost) that customers perceive as being different in ways that are important to them Nonstandardized products Customers value differentiated features more than they value low cost
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–24 How to Obtain a Differentiation Advantage Cost Drivers Value Chain Control if needed Reconfigure to maximize Lower buyers’ costs Raise performance of product or service Create sustainability through: Customer perceptions of uniqueness Customer reluctance to switch to non- unique product or service
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–25 Value-Creating Activities and Differentiation Highly developed MIS Emphasis on quality Worker compensation for creativity/productivity Use of subjective performance measures Basic research capability Technology High quality raw materials Delivery of products High quality replacement parts Superior handling of incoming raw materials Attractive products Rapid response to customer specifications Order-processing procedures Customer credit Personal relationships
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–26 Examples of Value- Creating Activities Associated with the Differentiation Strategy SOURCE: Adapted with the permission of The Free Press, an imprint of Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group, from Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, by Michael E. Porter, 47. Copyright © 1985, 1998 by Michael E. Porter. Figure 4.3
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–27 Competitive Risks of Differentiation The price differential between the differentiator’s product and the cost leader’s product becomes too large Differentiation ceases to provide value for which customers are willing to pay Experience narrows customers’ perceptions of the value of differentiated features Counterfeit goods replicate differentiated features of the firm’s products
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–28 Focus Strategies An integrated set of actions taken to produce goods or services that serve the needs of a particular competitive segment Particular buyer group (e.g. youths or senior citizens Different segment of a product line (e.g. professional craftsmen versus do-it-yourselfers Different geographic markets (e.g. East coast versus West coast)
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–29 Focus Strategies (cont’d) Types of focused strategies Focused cost leadership strategy Focused differentiation strategy To implement a focus strategy, firms must be able to: Complete various primary and support activities in a competitively superior manner, in order to develop and sustain a competitive advantage and earn above-average returns
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–30 Factors That Drive Focused Strategies Large firms may overlook small niches. A firm may lack the resources needed to compete in the broader market A firm is able to serve a narrow market segment more effectively than can its larger industry-wide competitors Focusing allows the firm to direct its resources to certain value chain activities to build competitive advantage
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–31 Competitive Risks of Focus Strategies A focusing firm may be “outfocused” by its competitors A large competitor may set its sights on a firm’s niche market Customer preferences in niche market may change to more closely resemble those of the broader market
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–32 Integrated Cost Leadership/ Differentiation Strategy A firm that successfully uses an integrated cost leadership/differentiation strategy should be in a better position to: Adapt quickly to environmental changes Learn new skills and technologies more quickly Effectively leverage its core competencies while competing against its rivals
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–33 Integrated Cost Leadership/ Differentiation Strategy (cont’d) Commitment to strategic flexibility is necessary for implementation of integrated cost leadership/differentiation strategy Flexible manufacturing systems Information networks Total quality management (TQM) systems
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–34 Flexible Manufacturing Systems Computer-controlled processes used to produce a variety of products in moderate, flexible quantities with a minimum of manual intervention Goal is to eliminate the “low-cost-versus-wide product-variety” tradeoff Allows firms to produce large variety of products at relatively low costs
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–35 Information Networks Link companies electronically with their suppliers, distributors, and customers Facilitate efforts to satisfy customer expectations in terms of product quality and delivery speed Improve flow of work among employees in the firm and their counterparts at suppliers and distributors
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–36 Total Quality Management (TQM) Systems Emphasize total commitment to the customer through continuous improvement using: Data-driven, problem-solving approaches Empowerment of employee groups and teams Benefits Increases customer satisfaction Cuts costs Reduces time-to-market for innovative products
Copyright © 2004 South-Western. All rights reserved.4–37 Risks of the Integrated Cost Leadership/ Differentiation Strategy Often involves compromises Becoming neither the lowest cost nor the most differentiated firm Becoming “stuck in the middle” Lacking the strong commitment and expertise that accompanies firms following either a cost leadership or a differentiated strategy
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