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Phoenix: a framework for Code Generation, Optimization and Program Analysis Andrew Pardoe Phoenix team

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1 Phoenix: a framework for Code Generation, Optimization and Program Analysis Andrew Pardoe Phoenix team

2 What is Phoenix?  Phoenix is Microsoft’s next-generation, state of the art infrastructure for program analysis and transformation  We wanted to…  Develop an industry-leading compilation and tools framework  Foster a rich ecosystem for  Academic  Research  Industry  With an infrastructure that is robust, retargetable, extensible, configurable and scalable  Phoenix is built on C++/CLI and compiles either as managed or native code

3 Building a program with C++/CLI  Microsoft C++ compiler  Input: program source code  Ouput: COFF object file  COFF files are linked with system libraries into PEs Driver (CL) C++ Source Frontend (C1) Backend (C2) Obj File

4 Roles of C1 (C1xx) and C2 C1 or C1xx C2  Preprocessing  Tokenization  Parsing  Semantic processing  CIL emission *  Types and symbol debug info  Metadata for managed code  * CIL reading  Program analysis  Optimization  Lowering to target  COFF emission  Source level debug info

5 Why we built Phoenix  Code generation technology now appears in many different forms  Large-scale optimizers (PreJIT or C++’s LTCG)  Fast code generation (.NET’s JIT, C++ debug mode, C#)  Custom code generators (fast conditional breakpoints, SQL expression optimizers)  Code generators in Microsoft target many different computer architectures  PC platforms (x86, x64, IA64)  Game consoles (x86, PPC)  Handheld devices (ARM)

6 And another set of reasons…  Microsoft builds sophisticated analysis tools  VS 2005’s C++ compiler contains an /analyze switch to perform static analysis for code defects  The.NET coding guidelines are enforced by FxCop  We have tools for defect, security and race detection  These tools are often developed in a manner that work for one specific product. This limits…  Retargeting the tool for other applications  Ability to adopt the best-of-breed technology  Ability to move forward as technology changes

7 Why the rest of the world needs Phoenix 一  Research  Research often spends too much time handling routine work instead of exploring the novel ideas that inspired the research  If research doesn’t build on a world-class framework it often cannot handle real-world problems  Industry  Much effort is spent on deciphering poorly documented formats and interfaces (Microsoft’s CIL or PE file formats)  There is an inherent fragility in working without specifications or promises of future compatibility  Industry “mistakes” end up costing Microsoft as well  Academic  Attempts to provide common infrastructures have had limited success in the past  By using Phoenix, educators can start with big problems and leave the routine work to us

8 Phoenix Infrastructure.Net CodeGen Runtime JITs Pre-JIT OO and.Net optimizations Native CodeGen Advanced C++/OO Optimizations FP optimizations OpenMP Retargetable “Machine Models” ~3 months: -Od ~3 months: -O2 Chip Vendor CDK ~6 month ports Sample port + docs Key ports (Xscale) done at msft Academic RDK Full sources (future) Managed API’s IP as DLLs Docs MSR & Partner Tools Built on Phoenix API’s Both HL and LL API’s Managed API’s Program Analysis Program Rewrite MSR Adv Lang Language Research Direct xfer to Phoenix Research Insulated from code generation AST Tools Static Analysis Tools Next Gen Front-Ends R/W Global Program Views

9 Key features of Phoenix  Written in C++ but usable by any.NET language  Samples provided in C# and C++/CLI  Phase and Plug-In model for third-party extensions to:  C++ compiler backend, JIT/PreJIT  Static analysis tools, binary analysis and manipulation  Plug-Ins and extensions to the Phoenix architecture  Single, strongly-typed, explicit dataflow/control flow IR used throughout all phases of the framework  IR and Type system are capable of processing native and managed code  Strong inter-phase consistency checking

10 DelphiCobol HL OptsLL OptsCode GenHL OptsLL Opts HL Opts Native Image C# Phoenix Core AST IR Syms Types CFGraph SSA Dataflow Alias EH Readers Writers Xlator Formatter Browser Phx APIs Profiler Obfuscator Visualizer Security Checker Refactor Lint VB C++ IL.NET assembly C++ C++AST PreFast Profile Eiffel C++ Phx AST Lex/Yacc Tiger Code Gen CompilersTools

11 CLR JIT CLR PreJITer VC++ VC++ BE The Phoenix Building Blocks Core Structures And Utilities High Level Optimizations Low Level Optimizations Machine Abstractions Dynamic Tools Locaity opts Static Tools Analysis

12 Phoenix Architecture  Core set of extensible classes to represent  IR (intermediate representation of code stream)  Symbols, Types, Function units, Basic blocks, Graphs, Trees, Aliasing information  Layered set of analysis and transformation components  Data flow analysis, Loop analysis, Alias analysis, Dead code removal, Redundant code detection  Global optimizations built on reusable analysis lattices  Common input/output library for binary formats  PE, LIB, OBJ, CIL, MSIL, PDB  Phoenix both reads and writes binary formats

13 Simple example void main (int argc, char** argv) { char * message; if (argc > 1) message = “Hello, world!\n”; else message = “Goodbye, world!\n”; printf (message); }

14 Resulting Phoenix IR 二

15 View inside a Phoenix-based C2 AST HIR MIRLIREIR CIL Reader Type Checker MIR Lower SSA Const SSA Dest Canon Addr Modes Lower Reg Alloc EH Lower Stack Alloc Frame Gen Switch Lower Block Layout Flow Opts Encode Lister C2C1 CILCIL SOURCESOURCE OBJECTOBJECT

16 Types of IR  High-level IR: Architecture and runtime independent. Object model instructions, array indices, full aliasing  Mid-level IR: Architecture independent, runtime dependent. Lowered to calls and address arithmetic  Low-level IR: Architecture and runtime dependent. Lowered to machine instructions  Encoded IR: Binary format. Lowered to encoded data instructions  IRs contain Instructions and Operands of various types at each IR level

17 IR states during compilation  Phases transform IR either within a state or from one state to a contiguous state  For example, lower phase transforms MIR into LIR. Optimizations usually work within a single phase. Abstract Concrete Lowering Raising ASTHIRMIRLIREIR

18 Extending a Phoenix-based compiler  The VC++ optimizer is just a Phoenix client  All Phoenix clients can host Plug-Ins  Plug-Ins can  Add new components  Extend existing components  Reconfigure clients  Extensibility relies upon  Reflection  Events and delegates

19 Component extensibility  Most objects in the system support observers by deriving from the Phoenix class Extensible Object  Observer classes can register delegates so that they are notified when the host object undergoes certain events. For example, if the host object is copied it will notify registered delegates  Phoenix provides a standard plug-in discovery and registration mechanism  Plug-ins can reconfigure the client, such as replacing the register allocator  Plug-ins can also use Phoenix’s analyses to do their own analyses and transformations

20 Extensibility example – birth tracking // Called from Instruction ctor PlugIn::NewInstructionEventHandler ( Phx::IR::Instruction ^ instruction ) { InstructionBirthExtensionObject ^ extensionObject = gcnew InstructionBirthExtensionObject(); extensionObject->BirthPhase = instruction ->FunctionUnit->Phase; instruction->AddExtensionObject(extensionObject); } // Called from Instruction dtor void PlugIn::DeleteInstructionEventHandler ( Phx::IR::Instruction ^ instruction ) { InstructionBirthExtensionObject ^ extensionObject = InstructionBirthExtensionObject::Get(instruction); instruction->RemoveExtensionObject (extensionObject); } // Attach a note to each instruction with the birth // phase for reference later public ref class InstructionBirthExtensionObject : public Phx::IR::InstructionExtensionObject { public: property Phx::Phases::Phase ^ BirthPhase; property System::String ^ BirthPhaseText { System::String ^ get () { if (BirthPhase != nullptr) { return BirthPhase->NameString; } return ""; } };

21 Plug-In VS Integration 三  Plug-Ins can be created via Visual Studio Wizards  RDK is downloadable and works with free VS Express Editions (though you probably want the VS Team System Edition for your work : )

22 Example: Unitialized local detection  We would like to warn the user that ‘x’ is not initialized before use  To do this we need to perform dataflow analysis  We’ll use a plug-in to add this phase to the existing Phoenix-based C2 int foo() { int x; return x; }

23 May and Must examples message may be used before it is defined message must be used before it is defined void main(…) { char * message; if (…) message = “Hello”; printf(message); } void main(…) { char * message; char * other; if (…) other = “Hello”; printf(message); }

24 IR for detecting uninitialized locals

25 Detecting an uninitialized use  For each local variable v  Examine all paths from the entry of the method to each use of v  If on every path v is not initialized before the use  v must be used before it is defined  If there is some path where v is not initialized before the use  v may be used before it is defined  Classic solution is to build a control flow graph and solve the data flow problem.  State is “unknown” at the start of each block. Transfer states between blocks and combine them as you traverse the control flow graph

26 Code sketch using classic dataflow bool changed = true; while (changed) { for each (Phx::Graphs::BasicBlock block in function) { STATE ^ inState = inStates[block]; bool firstPred = true; for each(Phx::Graphs::BasicBlock predecessorBlock in block->Predecessors) { STATE ^ predecessorState = outStates[predecessorBlock]; inState = meet(inState, predecessorState); } inStates[id] = inState; STATE ^ newOutState = gcnew STATE(inState); for each(Phx::IR::Instruction ^ instruction in block->Instructions) { for each (Phx::IR::Operand ^ operand in instruction->DestinationOperands) { Phx::Symbols::LocalVariableSymbol^ localSymbol = operand->Symbol->AsLocalVariableSymbol; newOutState[localSymbol] = destination(newOutState[localSymbol]); } STATE ^ outState = outStates[id]; bool blockChanged = ! equals(newOutState, outState); if (blockChanged) { changed = true; outStates[id] = newOutState; } Update input state Compute output state Check for convergence

27 Can we make this easier?  Dataflow solution computes the state for the entire graph, even at places where v is never referenced  An alternate model is known as “Static Single Assignment” form, or SSA. It directly connects definitions and uses.  Phoenix uses SSA and builds flow graphs when necessary  We can rewrite this code letting Phoenix do most of the routine work

28 Code sketch using Phoenix 四 for each (Phx::IR::Operand ^ destinationOperand in Phx::IR::Operand::IteratorDestinations(firstInstruction)) { if (destinationOperand->IsMemoryModificationReference) { for each (Phx::IR::Operand ^ useOperand in Phx::IR::Operand::IteratorUse(destinationOperand)) { if (useOperand->Instruction->Opcode != Phx::Common::Opcode::Phi && useOpnd->IsVariableOpnd) { Phx::Symbols::Symbol ^ symbolUse = useOperand-> AsVariableOpnd->Symbol; if (symbolUse != nullptr && !mustList.Contains(symbolUse)) { mustList.Add(symbolUse); }

29 Uninitialized local plug-in  Plug-in is loaded at runtime by Phoenix-based C2 UninitializedLocal.cpp C++/CLI UninitialzedLocal.dll Test.cpp C1 Test.obj Phx-C2

30 Phoenix C2 with our plug-in added  This complete plug-in is provided as a sample in the Research Development Kit  It is only ~400 lines of code to add a key warning to the C2 compiler  Other types of checking can be added just as easily  A demonstration of the warnings being emitted:

31 Phoenix PE Reading  Phoenix can read and write PE files directly  You can implement your own compiler or linker  You can create post-link tools for analysis, instrumentation or optimization  Binaries can be read in, raised into IR, changed and rewritten as new, working binaries  Phoenix Explorer is only ~800 lines of code on top of the Phoenix binary reading-writing library

32 Phoenix explorer is like ILDasm to IR

33 Binary rewriting with Phoenix  mtrace utility injects tracing code into managed applications  You don’t need the source code to do this (you do need the PDB)  mtrace shows functions being entered and exited

34 How do I get Phoenix?  Early access RDKs are available to selected universities  Sample projects include aspect oriented programming, code obfuscation, profiling  Contact for Academic early access  Early access CDK is available to selected industry partners  Contact for commercial early access  Phoenix RDK/CDKs release about every 6 months  Phoenix will be the next MS compiler backend  We build the next-generation Windows every night

35 More information 五 


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