Presentation on theme: "Exploratory Research Design: Secondary Data. Chapter Outline 1) Overview 2) Primary versus Secondary Data 3) Advantages & Uses of Secondary Data 4) Disadvantages."— Presentation transcript:
Exploratory Research Design: Secondary Data
Chapter Outline 1) Overview 2) Primary versus Secondary Data 3) Advantages & Uses of Secondary Data 4) Disadvantages of Secondary Data
5) Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data i. Specifications: Methodology Used to Collect the Data i. Specifications: Methodology Used to Collect the Data ii. Error: Accuracy of the Data ii. Error: Accuracy of the Data iii. Currency: When the Data were collected iii. Currency: When the Data were collected iv. Objective(s): The Purpose for Which the Data were Collected iv. Objective(s): The Purpose for Which the Data were Collected v. Nature: The Content of the Data v. Nature: The Content of the Data vi. Dependability: Overall, How Dependable are the Data vi. Dependability: Overall, How Dependable are the Data
6) Classification of Secondary Data 7) Internal Secondary Data 8) Published External Secondary Sources i. General Business Sources i. General Business Sources a. Guides a. Guides b. Directories b. Directories c. Indexes c. Indexes d. Non-governmental Statistical Data d. Non-governmental Statistical Data ii. Government Sources ii. Government Sources a. Census Data a. Census Data b. Other Government Publications b. Other Government Publications Census Data
9) Computerized Databases 9) Computerized Databases i. Classification of Computerized Databases i. Classification of Computerized Databases ii. Directories of Databases ii. Directories of Databases 10) Syndicate Sources of Secondary Data
11) Syndicated Data from Households i. Surveys i. Surveys a. Psychographics & Lifestyles a. Psychographics & Lifestyles b. Advertising Evaluation b. Advertising Evaluation c. General Surveys c. General Surveys d. Uses of Surveys d. Uses of Surveys e. Advantages & Disadvantages of Surveys e. Advantages & Disadvantages of Surveys ii. Diary Panels ii. Diary Panels a. Diary Purchase Panels a. Diary Purchase Panels b. Diary Media Panels b. Diary Media Panels c. Uses of Dairy Panels c. Uses of Dairy Panels d. Advantages & Disadvantages of Dairy Panels d. Advantages & Disadvantages of Dairy Panels iii. Electronic Scanner Services iii. Electronic Scanner Services a. Volume Tracking Data a. Volume Tracking Data b. Scanner Diary Panels b. Scanner Diary Panels c. Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV c. Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV d. Uses of Scanner Services d. Uses of Scanner Services e. Advantages & Disadvantages e. Advantages & Disadvantages
12) Syndicated Data from Institutions i. Retailers & Wholesalers i. Retailers & Wholesalers a. Uses of Audit Data a. Uses of Audit Data b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Audit Data b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Audit Data ii. Industry Services ii. Industry Services a. Uses of Industry Services a. Uses of Industry Services b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Industry b. Advantages & Disadvantages of Industry Services Services
13) Combining Information from Different Sources: Single-Source Data 14) Applications of Secondary Data i. Computer Mapping i. Computer Mapping 15) International Marketing Research 16) Ethics in Marketing Research 17) Internet and Computer Applications 18) Focus on Burke 19) Summary 20) Key Terms & Concepts 21) Acronyms
Primary Data Secondary Data Primary Data Secondary Data Collection purposeFor the problem at handFor other problems Collection processVery involvedRapid & easy Collection costHighRelatively low Collection timeLongShort A Comparison of Primary & Secondary Data A Comparison of Primary & Secondary Data Table 4.1
Criteria Issues Remarks Specifications & methodology Error & Accuracy Currency Objective Nature Dependability Data collection method, response rate, quality & analysis of data, sampling technique & size, questionnaire design, field work. Examine errors in approach, research design, sampling,data collection & analysis, & reporting. Time lag between collection & publication, frequency of updates. Why were the data collected? Definition of key variables, units of measurement, categories used, relationships examined. Expertise, credibility, reputation, & trustworthiness of the source. Data should be reliable, valid, & generalizable to the problem. Assess accuracy by comparing data from different sources. Census data are updated by syndicated firms. The objective determines the relevance of data. Reconfigure the data to increase their usefulness. Data should be obtained from an original source. Table 4.2 Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data
A Classification of Secondary Data Secondary Data InternalExternal Ready to Use Requires further processing Published Materials Computerized Databases Syndicated Services Fig. 4.1
Type of Individual/Household Level Data Available from Syndicated Firms RIP 4.1 I. I.Demographic Data -Identification (Name, address, telephone) -Sex -Marital status -Names of family members -Age (including ages of family members) -Income -Occupation -Number of children present -Home ownership -Length of residence -Number and make of cars owned
II.Psychographic Lifestyle Data -Interest in golf -Interest in snow skiing -Interest in book reading -Interest in running -Interest in bicycling -Interest in pets -Interest in fishing -Interest in electronics -Interest in cable television There are also firms such as Dun & Bradstreet and American Business Information which collect demographic data on businesses.
Statistical Data Published Secondary Data General Business Sources Government Sources Guides Directories Indexes Census Data Other Government Publications A Classification of Published Secondary Sources Secondary Sources Fig. 4.2
American Business Information: Here, There, and Everywhere RIP 4.2 American Business Information Inc. markets subsets of its data in a number of forms, including the professional on-line services (LEXIS-NEXIS and DIALOG), the general online services (CompuServe and Microsoft Network), the Internet (look-ups), and on CD-ROM. The underlying database on which all these products are based contains information on 110 million residential listings and 11 million business listings. ABI also assigns credit scores to company listings. The ABI database most business researchers are familiar with are the American Business Directory and the Canadian Business Directory.
Bibliographic Databases Computerized Databases On-LineOff-Line Numeric Databases Full-Text Databases Directory Databases Special- Purpose Databases A Classification of Computerized Databases Fig. 4.3 Internet
Unit of Measurement A Classification of Syndicated Services Fig. 4.4 Households/ Consumers Institutions
Syndicated Services: Consumers Syndicated Services: Consumers Fig. 4.4 Contd. Households / Consumers Surveys Mail Diary Panels Electronic scanner services PurchaseMedia Psychographic & Lifestyles General Advertising Evaluation Volume Tracking Data Scanner Diary Panels Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV
The New York Times on the Web: A New Way to Target Consumers RIP 4.3 The New York Times Electronic Media Company offers The New York Times on the Web database information to advertisers in a manner that enables firms to leverage the site’s 2 million registrants. The database contains demographic information, such as age, gender, income, and Zip code, that ties to an address for each of the members. This new database marketing system can identify and customize user groups, target web messages to specific segments of the population, and adjust the message based on audience reaction. It can also increase targeting opportunities through third-party data or additional information supplied by the user.
. For example, the database enables an automobile firm to emphasize safety to older customers, luxury to affluent ones, and roominess to families. The system is set up so that near real-time data can be received from the web that indicates how well ads are performing relative to age, gender, and income characteristics. Thus, this system allows a firm to maintain up-to-date information on audiences in order to position its products effectively.
International Organizations Domestic Organizations in the United States International Secondary Data International Organizations in the United States Organizations in Foreign Countries Government Sources Nongovernment Sources Governments Trade Associations A Classification of International Sources Fig. 4.5